- Slides: 20
Persian Empire ● At the dawn of the Classical Era, the Persian Empire was the most dominant empire on earth. To this day, (as a % of earth's population) the Persian Empire was the largest in history. The Persian Empires emerged in Southwest Asia (Middle East). The AP expects you to know ALL THREE: ● ACHAEMENID (550 -330 BCE) ● PARTHIAN (247 BCE-224 CE) ● SASSANID (224 -651 CE)
Vocabulary/Identifications for Persian Empire ● PERSIA ● CYRUS ● ZOROASTRIANISM ● ZOROASTER ● ZEND AVESTA ● DARIUS ● ROYAL ROAD ● EDICT of RESTORATION ● IMMORTALS ● ACHAEMENIDS
●Zoroastrianism is one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. ●It was founded by the Prophet Zoroaster in ancient Iran approximately 3500 years ago. ●Animist religion that saw material existence as battle between forces of good & evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; righteous lived on after death in “House of Song”; chief religion of Persian Empire.
Animism ●A religious outlook that sees gods in may aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religions.
What common features are found in empires? All empires: ★ controlled large areas and pops. ★ were brought together by conquest and funded in part by extracting wealth from conquered peoples. ★ stimulated the exchange of ideas, cultures, and values among the peoples they conquered. ★ sought to foster an imperial identity that transcended more local identities and loyalties. All empires ultimately collapse.
How did Persian & Greek civilizations differ in their political organization and values? Persian Empire: ★ Imperial political system that comprised of Mesopotamian polities, including the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. ★ Far larger than its predecessors, stretching from Egypt to India, and ruled over some 35 million subjects. ★ Featured an elaborate cult of kingship in which the emperor was secluded in royal magnificence and was approachable only through an elaborate ritual. ★ Absolute ruler possessed a divine right to rule by the will of the Persian god Ahura Mazda. ★ Effective administrative system that placed Persian governors, satraps, in each of twentythree provinces, while lower-level officials were drawn from local authorities. This system was monitored by imperial spies. ★ Policy of respect for the empire’s non-Persian cultural traditions.
How did Persian & Greek civilizations differ in their political organization & values? Greeks: ★ 100 s of independent city-states (500 and 5, 000 male citizens) ★ Not an empire but did expand through the establishment of colonies around the Mediterranean and Black seas. ★ Popular participation in political life that occurred within the citystates. This participation was based on the unique ideas of “citizenship, ” of free people running the affairs of state, and of equality for all citizens before the law. ★ Athenian democracy was direct rather than representative. Even at its height, it was far from universal, with well over half the population, including women, slaves, and foreigners, excluded from participation.
What were the consequences for both sides of the encounter between the Persians & Greeks (Greco-Persian Wars)? Failure of the Persian invasions of Greece had very little impact on the Persian Empire. ★ Greek victory confirmed their view that Greek freedoms strengthened their will to fight, while Persia came to represent despotism. ★ 20 th Century perception of East/West divide in which Europe (the West) represented freedom & Asia (the East) represented despotism ★ 50 years following the Greco-Persian Wars were the high point for participation in Athenian democracy = "Golden Age of Athens" ○ Parthenon built, ○ Greek theater was born, ○ Socrates was beginning his career as a philosopher.
What were the consequences for both sides of the encounter between the Persians & Greeks (Greco-Persian Wars)? ★ Greek victory radicalized Athenian democracy resulted in bitter civil war known as the Peloponnesian War ★ Athens was defeated, while the Greeks weakened themselves ★ This infighting ultimately opened the way for Macedonia to conquer the Greek citystates
Classical Mediterranean Vocab. /IDs ● ALPHABET ● HOMER ● ATHENS ● SPARTA ● MACEDONIA ● ALEXANDER the GREAT ● ROMAN REPUBLIC ● ROMAN EMPIRE ● CONSTANTINE ● CHRISTIANITY
Crash Course: The Persians & Greeks
What changes did Alexander’s conquests bring in their wake? Alexander’s conquests led to the widespread dissemination of Greek culture into Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. The major avenue for this spread lay in the many cities established by the Greeks throughout the Hellenistic world.
Crash Course: Alexander The Great