Period 4. 2 Andrew Jackson The Bloody Deeds of a Common Man
The Troubled Presidency of John Quincy Adams • James Monroe supports John Quincy Adams to succeed him. • Intelligent, keen interest in progress, loyal to nation, not sectional • Nearly loses election of 1824 • Did lose his re-election • A "gentleman" in an age of rising democracy
JQA • Diplomat • Potentially one of our best foreign policy minds • President • Sought to modernize the American economy and promoted education. Adams enacted a part of his agenda and paid off much of the national debt. • Lack of Congressional Support • Representative • Staunch advocate of Abolition • Predicted the Dissolution of the Union
The End of the “Era of Good Feelings” • There were sharp divisions over how to achieve national greatness • Elite nonpartisan statesmanship would soon give way to a more contentious democratic process • Not such a good feeling: Jackson feels slighted by the recount of JQA in the House… • Here Henry Clay, who came in with another ‘compromise’ is seen sewing Jackson’s mouth shut.
Andrew Jackson Bloody Deeds of the Common Man
The Corrupt Bargain • 1824 election, no outright majority was attained and the process required resolution in the House of Representative, whose Speaker and candidate in his own right, Henry Clay, gave his support to John Quincy Adams, and was then selected to be his Secretary of State.
Death of our Founders • On the 50 th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence friends and founders John Adams (90) and Thomas Jefferson (82) both took their last breath. • Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were the last surviving members of the original American revolutionaries who had stood up to the British empire and forged a new political system in the former colonies
Final Divorce Decree The Election of 1828 • Jackson’s campaign was engineered by Senator Martin Van Buren of NY • He wanted to recreate the old Jeffersonian coalition of: • Northern farmers and artisans. • Southern slave owners. • Farmers with small land holdings. • He created the Democratic Party from the remains of Jefferson’s old party: • Created a national committee that oversaw local and state party units. • Mass meetings, parades, picnics. • A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.
Who Jackson Was… • Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment, ” monopolies, & special privilege. • His heart & soul was with the “plain folk. ” • Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
President Jackson • First western President • First person to serve as a U. S. Representative, Senator, and President. • First nominated at a party convention • Second without a degree • First “Common” Man • The Best Inaugural Party! • Project Ja-X?
The Spoils System • To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy • William Marcy of NY
The “Peggy Eaton Affair” Petticoat Affair (1830 -31) • Jackson appointed Eaton as his Secretary of War, hoping to limit the rumors, but the scandal intensified. Jackson felt political opponents, especially those around Calhoun, were feeding the controversy. • The controversy finally resulted in the resignation of almost all members of the Cabinet over a period of weeks in the spring of 1831. “I [would] rather have live vermin on my back than the tongue of one of these Washington women on my reputation. ” -Martin Van Buren
The Kitchen Cabinet • A term used by political opponents of President of the United States Andrew Jackson to describe the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted in parallel to the United States Cabinet following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton affair and his break with Vice President John C. Calhoun in 1831
Jackson v Calhoun • John C. Calhoun, resigns as VP because of the Eaton Affair and Tariff of 1828 • Tariff of Abomination • Calhoun becomes a US Senator from South Carolina and defends slavery and state’s rights. • Calhoun threatened secession (leaving the US) if tariff were not lowered. • Calhoun believed in the doctrine of nullification or each state had the right to decide whether to obey a federal law or to declare it null and void
Webster v Hayne Debate “A Proxy War” on the nature of the nullification • Daniel Webster of Massachusetts • Webster attacked the idea that any state could defy laws or leave the Union • Robert Hayne of South Carolina • Hayne argued that the states had the right to nullify federal laws believed to be unconstitutional Who do you think Andrew Jackson sided with?
Jackson v Calhoun • Jackson persuaded Congress to pass a Force Bill giving the president authority to take military action in South Carolina • Jackson issued a Proclamation to the People of SC stating that nullification and disunion were treason • Jackson also suggested that Congress lower the tariff.
Read American Spirit 273 -275 & Nation of Nations 307 -309 • In a T-Chart compare arguments of South Carolina and Jackson • What justification was given for the act of Nullification? • How was the state to implement nullification? • Which was given precedence: obedience to the state or to the nation? • Did this ordinance leave an opening for compromise? If so, how? • Why did Jackson believe that the interpretation of the Constitution as a state compact was incorrect? How did his perspective affect his view of secession? • Which branch of the national government did he indicate was the ultimate expression of the people’s will? How does that help explain why he wielded the powers of his office as he did?
The Nullification Crisis • • • Henry Clay writes the • Compromise of 1833 Tariffs were gradually • lowered---25% over 10 years South Carolina dropped nullification South lost its dominance to North and West Jackson preserved the Union Southerners believed they were becoming a permanent minority As that feeling of isolation grew, it was not nullification but the threat of secession that ultimately became the South’s primary weapon. A lot better than when Jackson said he would “crush SC” and any other state that tried to join them.
Indigenous Interactions • • Creek Campaign Seminole Wars “Children of the Forest” Indian Removal
Cherokee Nation • Sequoya, Major Ridge, John Ross, Samuel Worcester, Worcester v Georgia. • PBS American Experience: We Shall Remain, Ep 3. • Cherokees v Andrew Jackson article
Indian Removal Act - 1830 • The act authorized him to negotiate with the Indians in the South for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River. • While Native American removal was, in theory, supposed to be voluntary, in practice great pressure was put on leaders. • The Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes. • In particular, Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokee nation.
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek • Just one mark of “success” in the removal process. • A 22 section treaty. • Section 1: Perpetual Peace and Friendship • Section 22: A permanent Choctaw delegate on the floor of the U. S. House of Representatives.
Resistance to Removal: 1831 -32 Cherokee v. Georgia -Tribe sued Georgia -Are Cherokees a foreign nation? -“Domestic dependent nations” - Case not heard, no jurisdiction… Worcester v. Georgia -Rev. Samuel Worcester -GA arrested him -Sued GA, won in Court -States lack power on res
Indian Removal The Trail of Tears typically refers to the final removal of Cherokee in 1838. • More than 4, 000 Died along the way. • In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nu na da ul tsun yi—“the Place Where They Cried”. • It Does Happen. We’ll try and revisit it later…
Trail of Tears http: //www. pbs. org/wgbh/amex/weshall remain/
The Bank War • http: //www. history. com/this-day-in-history/andrew-jackson-shuts-down-second-bank-of-the-us • http: //www. history. com/topics/us-presidents/andrew-jackson/videos/jackson-censured-in-bankwar
A Political Cartoon: “King Andrew”? • Who is the subject • What is the apparent issue • What are the objects/symbols • What are the labels • What is the message
Election of 1832 • Clay was the unquestioned leader of the National Republicans, but he was vulnerable to Jacksonian allegations that he associated with the upper class. • At a time when white males without property had the right to vote and wanted someone more like themselves. • He only carries 49 electoral votes
A New Party : WHIGS! • Both the Whigs and Jacksonian Democrats were born out of Jeffersonian Republicanism… But, • The American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback" with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social, economic and moral modernization. • The National Republicans who formed the Whig party, led by Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster, and Future President, William Henry Harrison SPOILER ALERT The Whigs nominated a war hero in 1840—and emphasized that WHH had given up the high life to live in a log cabin on the frontier. He Won
Positions on the Key Issues of the Early 30 s WHIGS DEMOCRATS • Natural Harmony of Society and • • • The Value of Community Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos. Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical. Opposes Indian removal. Favored tariffs. Supported a National Bank • • • Liberty of the Individual and Down with Privilege Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper. For Indian removal. Oppose tariffs. States’ rights. Oppose federal support for internal improvements. Opposed the National Bank.
Paying off the Debt • In January 1835, Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U. S. history that has been accomplished. • President Andrew Jackson nearly eliminated the debt, calling it a "national curse. " Jackson railed against borrowing, spending and even banks, for that matter, and he tried to eliminate all federal debt. By January 1, 1835, under Jackson, the debt was just $33, 733. • A severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused a tenfold increase in national debt within its first year. • Panic of 1837: Under President Martin Van Buren (Jackson’s 2 nd VP)
Debt Facts • The U. S. national debt on January 1 st, 1791 was just $75 million dollars. Today, the U. S. national debt rises by that amount about once an hour. • When World War II ended, the debt equaled 122 percent of GDP (GDP is a measure of the entire economy). In the 1950 s and 1960 s the economy grew at an average rate of 4. 3 percent a year and the debt gradually declined to 38 percent of GDP in 1970. • Currently about 75% • Since 1938, the national debt has increased at an average annual rate of 8. 5 percent. • The only exceptions to the constant annual increase over the last 62 years were Clinton and Johnson- the national debt still existed under both presidents. During the Clinton Presidency, debt growth was zero during the surplus. Johnson averaged 3 percent growth of debt for the six years he served.
Debt Facts • When Ronald Reagan took office, the U. S. national debt was just under $1 trillion. When he left office it was $2. 6 trillion. During the eight Regan years, the US moved from being the world's largest international creditor to the largest debtor nation. • The U. S. national debt has more than doubled since the year 2000 • Under President Bush: at the end of calendar year 2000, the debt stood at $5. 629 trillion. Eight years later, the federal debt stood at $9. 986 trillion. • Under President Obama: The debt started at $9. 986 trillion and escalated to $13. 7 trillion, a 38 percent increase over two years.
The Simple… This is deficit… If your nation continually runs deficit, then you have debt
The $20 • Does Andrew Jackson deserve to be on the $20 bill?