Period 3 Postclassical 600 1450 CE FIRED Feudalism

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Period 3: Postclassical 600 -1450 CE

Period 3: Postclassical 600 -1450 CE

FIRED Feudalism Interregional trade Religion Expansion Diffusion

FIRED Feudalism Interregional trade Religion Expansion Diffusion

The First Global Civilization Post Classical Era & The Rise and Spread of Islam

The First Global Civilization Post Classical Era & The Rise and Spread of Islam

I. Pre-Islamic Arabia Clans nomadic kinship clans Shayks were leaders of tribes; warriors highly

I. Pre-Islamic Arabia Clans nomadic kinship clans Shayks were leaders of tribes; warriors highly valued lack of unified culture B. Towns & Trade Towns emerged as oases on caravan routes Mecca: wealthy center of trade & religion A.

Marriage & Family � Matrilineal Society as nomads � Women’s rights depended on clan/tribe

Marriage & Family � Matrilineal Society as nomads � Women’s rights depended on clan/tribe � Men more valued as warriors � Polygamy favored inequality Culture & Religion � Strong oral literary tradition � polythestic religion � Moral and Ethical code provided by tribal custom � Kaaba

Rise of Islam Muhammad merchant, married to wealthy widow 610 CE- claimed to have

Rise of Islam Muhammad merchant, married to wealthy widow 610 CE- claimed to have visions A. Persecution & Victory Muhammad fled home city of Mecca- Hijra 622 Returned to Mecca- forced monotheism

Arabs & Islam Arab monotheism became conquerors of ME Provided universal ethics, equality, charity

Arabs & Islam Arab monotheism became conquerors of ME Provided universal ethics, equality, charity Universal Elements- R Monotheistic: Allah Book: Qu’ran Egalitarianism-equality of believers Five Pillars: Faith, Prayer, Fast, Zakat, Hajj 5 ps: Profession of faith, Prayer, poor, pilgrimage to Mecca, painful fasting- PILLARS

Arab Empire under Ummayads Consolidation & Division- P Muhammad dies(632) CONFLICT!!!- resolved by military

Arab Empire under Ummayads Consolidation & Division- P Muhammad dies(632) CONFLICT!!!- resolved by military under the leadership of Abu Bakr, the new caliph (“king”) Raided and conquered surrounding Byzantine, Persian, Mesopotamian territories

Problems of Succession Reemerge- Who’s in charge? 656 CE Murder of Uthman, 3 rd

Problems of Succession Reemerge- Who’s in charge? 656 CE Murder of Uthman, 3 rd Caliphate Ali (descendent of Muhammad) reemerged as successor With support of Egypt, Mu’awiya proclaimed succession in 660; Ali, family assassinated Create Sunni- supported the Mu’awiya & Shi’a- supported Ali split Relocated capital to Damascus, Syria; built bureaucracy led by Arab Muslim military aristocracy

Cultural Diffusion conquests from Spain to Central Asia- see map Three Methods of Spread:

Cultural Diffusion conquests from Spain to Central Asia- see map Three Methods of Spread: Military Merchant Missionary Arabic language spreads with Islam Technology diffusion Converts & People of the Book Christians and Jews- okay- people of the book- BUT they were charged a “head tax”

Family & Gender men allowed 4 wives Strengthened rights of women’s inheritance, divorce Syncretism

Family & Gender men allowed 4 wives Strengthened rights of women’s inheritance, divorce Syncretism create more isolation for women Umayyad Decline Increasing luxury

Chapter 7 Abbasid & Spread of Islamic Civilization

Chapter 7 Abbasid & Spread of Islamic Civilization

The Abbasid Empire Abbasids by 750 had defeated Caliph Baghdad as Sunni capital Established

The Abbasid Empire Abbasids by 750 had defeated Caliph Baghdad as Sunni capital Established Wazir, chief administrators, to oversee enormous bureaucracy Islamic Conversion Exempt Muslims from taxes, offered opportunities in schooling, gov’t

Town & Country Great urban, economic expansion Muslim merchants, used technology (dhow), Slaves served

Town & Country Great urban, economic expansion Muslim merchants, used technology (dhow), Slaves served caliphs, officials Countryside dominated by soldiers, merchants

Mid to Late Abbasid Eras Abbasid Decline o Problems of Succession o Foreign Influence:

Mid to Late Abbasid Eras Abbasid Decline o Problems of Succession o Foreign Influence: Slave Mercenaries, Eunuchs, Concubines & Persian advisors o Imperial Extravagance: Monumental building & living = Increasing taxes o Social Unrest: Food riots, pillaging, Shi’a rebels

Declining Treatment of Women Harem: Wives & Concubines of caliphs restricted areas of palace

Declining Treatment of Women Harem: Wives & Concubines of caliphs restricted areas of palace Slave concubines more freedom than wives as non. Muslim Rich women married at puberty, no career outlets, less education, limited outside contact Low class women needed to support families

Abbasid Loss of Power Mid 10 th Century Independent. Kingdoms broke away; Egypt &

Abbasid Loss of Power Mid 10 th Century Independent. Kingdoms broke away; Egypt & Syria 945: Buyids of Persia took Baghdad; took title of sultan 1055: Seljuk Turks, provided strong political authority against Egypt & Byzantine Still ruled in Abbasid name

CRUSADES. Christian Crusades 8 Crusades led by knights of w. Europe; began 1096 to

CRUSADES. Christian Crusades 8 Crusades led by knights of w. Europe; began 1096 to recapture Holy Land Influenced Europe: weapons, buildings, lost Greek learning, Math & Numbers, Rugs & Textiles, Chess, Chivalry and Food Muslims took little from West & removed influence by 1291

Flowering of Islamic Learning Persian Literature- Persian replaced Arabic language for culture � Islamic

Flowering of Islamic Learning Persian Literature- Persian replaced Arabic language for culture � Islamic focus on religion, philosophy, legal codes � Also building, science, medicine, mathematics � Numbers, astronomy, printing, gunpowder from India and China � Navigation, Trade Uses �

Cont. C. Religious Trends strict adherence to Qu’ran promoted by mullas/ulama Sufis: wandering mystics

Cont. C. Religious Trends strict adherence to Qu’ran promoted by mullas/ulama Sufis: wandering mystics seeking personal connection with Allah; primary source of religious expansion

Cont. D. End of the Caliphate 1220 s Chinggis Khan & Mongol moved from

Cont. D. End of the Caliphate 1220 s Chinggis Khan & Mongol moved from central Asia through Turko-Persian regions 1258 Baghdad sacked, last Abbassid caliphate executed