- Slides: 25
Period 2: 600 B. C. E. to 600 C. E. The Development of States and Empires (2. 2)
Change and Continuity �How did classical empires (Roman, Han) differ from earlier empires (Egyptian, Babylonian)? Change? �How were they similar? Continuity?
Classical States and Empires � The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states. Required examples of key states and empires Southwest Asia: Persian Empires Mediterranean region: Phoenicia & colonies, Greek city states and colonies, and Hellenistic and Roman Empire East Asia: Qin and Han Empire South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city-states Andean South America: Moche
The Persian Empire � Indo-European people in present-day Iran � Drew upon Babylonians and Assyrians � King ruled by the will of Ahura Mazda (Zoroastrianism) � 23 Persian governors (satraps) with lower-level officials drawn from local authorities � General policy of respect for empire’s many non-Persian cultures (ex: Jews rebuild temple) � Infrastructure: standardized coinage, predictable taxes, canal linking Nile and Red Sea, roads � Elaborate imperial centers (Susa, Persepolis) with monuments and palaces
Persian Empire Expansion
The Greeks � Small, competing city-states � Geography contributed to political independence, but common language and religion � Athenians had direct democracy � Greco-Persian Wars: Greek settlements on the Anatolian seacoast came under Persian control rebellion Greek victory (attributed to freedoms) � Golden Age � Peloponnesian Wars: Athens defeated by Persia decline
Alexander’s Hellenistic Empire � 338 B. C. : Macedonian takeover of Greece by Phillip II � Son Alexander created a Greek empire from Egypt to India � Defeated Persian Empire � Died in 323 B. C. E. empire was divided into three parts, ruled by Macedonian generals. � Key significance: spread Hellenistic culture throughout Asia and beyond
Roman Republic and Empire � 8 th century B. C. E. : originally ruled by king � 509 B. C. E. : Roman aristocrats overthrew monarchy and established a republic 2 Consuls advised by patrician Senate Law – Twelve Tables � 264 - 146 B. C. E. : Punic Wars with Carthage � Rome becomes empire with Augustus Caesar � Pax Romana: From 27 B. C. to 180, Roman Empire provided peace and prosperity for the Mediterranean world. � Expansion due to strong military � Conquered people given some self-rule; many granted citizenship
Qin (221 to 202 B. C. E. ) � Qin Shihuangdi (“First Emperor”) defeated other states � Expanded into parts of Vietnam and Korea � Used Legalism as governing philosophy: punished aristocrats � Beginnings of Great Wall � Standardized weights, coinage, written language � Encouraged silk manufacturing � New roads
Han (202 B. C. E. to 220 C. E. ) � Less harsh; Confucianism replaces Legalism as governing philosophy � 141 - 87 B. C. E. : Emperor Wudi establishes a Confucian Academy for training imperial bureaucrats: beginning of Chinese civil service system � Trade along Silk Roads increased � Government oversaw iron production, built canals and irrigation systems � Paper manufactured for first time
Mauryan (326 -184 B. C. E. ) � Founded by Chandragupta � Expanded under grandson Ashoka (268 -232 B. C. E. ) � Converted to Buddhism spread � Encouraged trade and constructed roads
Gupta (320 -550 C. E. ) � Less centralized rule � Peace and prosperity of the Guptas enabled pursuit of science and art � Marked by inventions and discoveries zero, decimal system, “Arabic numerals” � Extensive trade with Indochina, Sri Lanka, Burma
The Maya �Classical period from 250 to 900 �Cultural achievements concept of zero complex mathematical calculations astronomy (predict eclipses) art, writing, pyramids, plazas, temples �Politics: no unified empire, city-states ruled by divine rulers �Decline was sudden and mysterious
Teotihuacan � Located in Valley of Mexico � Built c. 150 B. C. E. to plan � 200, 000 people at peak � Street of the Dead: grand homes of elites � Temple of Feathered Serpent: remains of 200 sacrificial victims found � mysteriously collapsed in 650 C. E. , 1000 years later Aztecs dub it “city of the gods”
New Techniques– Rome, China, and Persia � Administrative institutions Centralized governments Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies � Economic: Promotion of trade and economic integration � building and maintaining roads � Issuing currencies � Military Techniques: Diplomacy, developing supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads Drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the local populations or conquered people
Cities � Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires. Persepolis Chang’an Pataliputra Athens Carthage Rome Alexandria Constantinople Teotihuacan
Persepolis (Persia) PERSEPOLIS
Why did they D. I. E. ? � Roman, Han, and Gupta empires all declined and collapsed � 1. Disease: declining urban populations � 2. Invasions: Xiongnu invaded Han China White Huns invaded Gupta Germanic tribes invaded Romans � 3. Environmental: Excessive mobilization of resources caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites. Deforestation, Desertification, Soil erosion, Silted rivers
Effects and legacy of decline � Decline of urban life � Contracting population � Diminishing international trade � Insecurity for ordinary people � China v. Rome While China was able to reassemble under the Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties, Western Europe never again experienced a centralized, imperial authority. Instead, it fragmented into kingdoms, city-states, and ultimately nation-states. Urban decline most severe in Western Europe
Essential Vocabulary � 1. infrastructure � 2. monumental architecture � 3. bureaucracy � 4. centralized government � 5. Pax Romana � 6. Greco-Persian Wars � 7. Peloponnesian Wars � 8. Twelve Tables � 9. patricians/ plebeians � 10. Augustus Caesar � 11. Qin Shihuangdi � 12. Han Wudi � 13. Arabic numerals � 14. Ashoka � 15. Teotihuacan
Copy the following question �Analyze similarities and differences in the diffusion of Buddhism and Christianity from their origins to the 6 th century. �How would you answer this question?
Your Turn � Analyze similarities and differences between the imperial administration of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire.
Sample Thesis �While both the Roman and Han Empires used well-organized bureaucracies and infrastructure to administer their empires, they differed in the philosophies used to justify their rule.