Perfect Modals are used to talk about the

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Perfect Modals are used to talk about the past and what was advisable in

Perfect Modals are used to talk about the past and what was advisable in the past. Modal + have + past participle

I should have cooked more burgers. Now we don’t have enough. Sam must have

I should have cooked more burgers. Now we don’t have enough. Sam must have gone to the beach yesterday. He has a sunburn today. She might have left her keys on the table, but she’s not sure. They could have driven their car, but they decided to walk instead.

She might have come to the house. You should have stayed in bed. You

She might have come to the house. You should have stayed in bed. You were supposed to be here at 9: 00.

There are belief modals that express degrees of certainty She must have gone to

There are belief modals that express degrees of certainty She must have gone to the party. There are social modals that express suggestions, expectations, obligations, and so on. You should have called your wife.

Should have + past participle When the action did not happen and someone is

Should have + past participle When the action did not happen and someone is sorry (regrets) that the action did not happen. I failed the test. I should have studied last night. My stomach hurts! I shouldn’t have eaten those four doughnuts.

Must + have + past participle When you are almost certain that the action

Must + have + past participle When you are almost certain that the action happened. Based on facts or current situation, you conclude that the action happened. Joe looks really tired today. He must have gone to bed late last night.

Could + have + past participle When the speaker had the opportunity to do

Could + have + past participle When the speaker had the opportunity to do something, but you are not sure he did it. You can also use it when the action was possible but you are not sure if it really happened. After dinner, I felt really sick. It could have been the fish. It tasted a little strange.

Might + have + past participle When the action was possible, but you are

Might + have + past participle When the action was possible, but you are not sure it happened- the same meaning as may have, could have + past participle

Would + have + past participle When the action did not happen (conditional) The

Would + have + past participle When the action did not happen (conditional) The young couple would have purchased the house if it had two bathrooms The negative form would not have + past participle is used when the action actually happened, but it would not have happened if something else occurred first. The pie would not have tasted so sweet if I had added the correct amount of sugar.

Progressive modals are used to emphasize action in progress in the present or the

Progressive modals are used to emphasize action in progress in the present or the future modal + be + verb + ing You must be joking She must be working now.

Perfect Progressive modals are used to emphasize action in progress in the past. modal

Perfect Progressive modals are used to emphasize action in progress in the past. modal + have + been + verb +ing He must have been sleeping when the fire broke out.

The End!

The End!