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PEACE THEOLOGY 101 LECTURE 7 PEACE THEOLOGY 101
PEACE THEOLOGY 101 Introduction to Peace Theology. This course will help the students to appreciate and to evaluate a biblical understanding and contemporary practice of Peace Theology. Such evaluation will be done within the framework of social sciences and informed from the perspective of biblical theology. The students will be intellectually, emotionally, and volitionally involved in the current discussions on the meanings, proposals, and tasks of Peace Theology. PEACE THEOLOGY 101
TOWARDS A TANAKH THEOLOGY OF SOCIO-POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION PEACE THEOLOGY 101
PEACE THEOLOGY THE PEACE OF GOD IS CENTRAL TO THE GOOD NEWS Harmony with God (Spiritual Transformation) Harmony with the Self (Psycho-Social Transformation) Harmony with Others (Social-Political Transformation) Harmony with the Creation (Economic-Ecological Transformation) PEACEBUILDING=SHALOMLIVING PEACE THEOLOGY 101
PEACEBUILDING IS SHALOMLIVING SHALOM-LIVING IS A COMPREHENSIVE STRATEGY Shalom. Living encompasses, generates, and sustains the full array of processes, approaches, and stages needed to transform conflict toward more sustainable, peaceful relationships. SHALOM-LIVING IS A DYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION Shalom. Living is not merely seen as a stage in time or a condition. It is a dynamic transformation and requires a process of continuous building. It needs investment and materials, architectural design and coordination of labor, laying of a foundation, detailed finish work, as well as continuing maintenance. SHALOM-LIVING INVOLVES WIDE RANGE OF ACTIVITIES Shalom. Living involves a wide range of activities and functions that both precede and follow formal peace accords. Such activities include conflict transformation, military intervention and conversion, governance and policymaking, restorative and transitional justice, environmental protection, human rights, civilian and military peacekeeping, peace education, activism and advocacy, trauma healing, and social-economic development.
ACTORS TO PEACEBUILDING ACTORS ACTIONS LEVEL 1: TOP LEADERSHIP FEW MIDDLE-RANGE LEADERSHIP LEVEL 3: GRASSROOTS LEADERSHIP AFFECTED POPULATION LEVEL 2: MANY : : Focus on high-level negotiations : : Emphasizes ceasefire : : Led by highly visible, single mediator : : : : Problem-solving workshops Training in conflict resolution Peace Commissions Insider-partial teams : : : : Local Peace Commissions Grassroots training Prejudice reduction Psycho-social work in post-war trauma
AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR PEACEBUILDING John Paul Lederach, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies (USIP, Wash. , DC, 1997, p. 80) LEVEL OF RESPONSE SYSTEM ROOT CAUSES What are the root causes of the crisis? SUB-SYSTEM VISION What are the social structures and relationships we desire? TRANSFORMATION How do we get from crisis to desired change? RELATIONSHIP CRISIS MANAGEMENT How do we manage the immediate crisis? PREVENTION How do we prevent the crisis from recurring? ISSUE CRISIS INTERVENTION 6 wks-1 yr PREPARATION AND TRAINING 1 -5 yrs DESIGN OF SOCIAL CHANGE 5 -10 yrs TIME FRAME OF ACTIVITY DESIRED FUTURE 10 -25+ yrs
CONFLICT Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce recources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals.
CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION …is to envision and respond to the ebb and flow of social conflict as life-giving opportunities for creating constructive change processes that reduce violence, increase justice in direct interaction and social structures, and respond to real-life problems in human relationships.
CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION Processes of change in relationships. . . towards reconciliation. . . continuous. . . life-time process. . . It's the big picture. CONFLICT RESOLUTION Social processes focused on solving specific issues or cases affecting Conflict Transformation. It's the smaller picture that affects the bigger picture.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION CONTINUUM LEGISLATIVE JUDICIAL APPROACHES ARBITRATION EXTERNAL INFLUENCE TO THE PROCESS AND OUTCOME MEDIATION FACILITATION CONCILIATION NEGOTIATION INFORMALDISCUSSION & PROBLEM SOLVING PARTIES’ CONTROL OF PROCESS AND OUTCOME
MANAGING CONFLICT ENERGY EXPRESSED DESTRUCTIVELY VIOLENCE SUPPRESSED CONFLICT CONTINUES REPRESSED LOST OPPORTUNITY FOR GOOD RESULT RESENTMENT AND INJUSTICES INCREASE EXPRESSED CONSTRUCTIVELY PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL CHANGE
PROCESS OF RECONCILIATION Reconciliation is focused on building relationship between antagonists. Reconciliation is a place, a locus, a space created for encounter by the parties. great biblical-theological concept and a practical course of action. Reconciliation is a PEACE THEOLOGY
POSITIONS AND INTERESTS POSITION INTERESTS
HOW CONFLICT TRANSFORMS A COMMUNITY DESTRUCTIVE 7. POLARIZATION Hostility 5. EYE FOR AN EYE Reaction & escalation _ P Talk negatively about, not with P 3. ISSUE PROLIFERATION P From specific to general P 2. SHIFT FROM DISAGREEMENT TO PERSONAL ANTAGONISM Person seen as problem P= 1. PROBLEM-SOLVING Disagree but share problem P =P LESS TRUST 4. NEGATIVE TRIANGLE P MORE VIOLENCE CASE NEEDS INTERVENTION LESS DIRECT CONTACT 6. ANTAGONISM LESS ACCURATE COMMUNICATION Change in social organization CONSTRUCTIVE
THE JOURNEY TOWARDS RECONCILIATION Realize oforganization violence Change effects in social 5. AGREE TO NEGOTIATE EYE FOR AN EYE M M M Proactive Reaction &de-escalation CASE NEEDS INTERVENTION 4. NEGATIVE TRIANGLE POSITIVE TRIANGLE Talk negatively about, notwith positively about, 3. ISSUE CLARIFICATION PROLIFERATION P M + M P P P From general specific to specific general 2. SHIFT FROM PERSONAL DISAGREEMENT M P P ANTAGONISM DISAGREEMENT TO PERSONAL TO ANTAGONISM P= Person not as problem seen as problem 1. STICK PROBLEM-SOLVING WITH PROBLEM-SOLVING Disagree but share problem PEACE THEOLOGY =P P P MORE TRUST Seek mediation Hostility LESS VIOLENCE 6. ANTAGONISM MONITOR CEASEFIRE MORE DIRECT CONTACT 7. CEASEFIRE POLARIZATION MORE ACCURATE COMMUNICATION DESTRUCTIVE CONSTRUCTIVE
REFLECTION: THE HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF MY ENEMY