- Slides: 5
Partition, Treaty and Civil War, 1920 -23 • Partition: the idea of splitting Ireland into two different countries. • 1920 Government of Parliament Act: the act that created the State of Northern Ireland. • De Valera and Sinn Fein leaders opposed partition and Home Rule. The IRA continued to fight until July 1921 before Llyod offered to talk and begin a peace treaty.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 • October 1921, de Valera sent Griffith and Collins to London to talk. Here were the results: – Ireland would be called the Irish Free State. – It would have independence (a flag, army, stamps, passports, etc) – It would not be a republic but a Dominion of the British Commonwealth (they would swear an oath to the king). – The British Navy would continue to use the ports – A ‘Boundary Commission’ would be formed to divide Ireland.
Debating the Treaty • Llyod threatened another war if the treaty was not signed immediately by Griffith and Collins (without consulting de Valera). • Reluctantly they did. This caused tension back in Ireland. • Arguments against were that Ireland would not be truly free, Britain would interfere continuously and oaths were already taken to the Irish Republic which would have to be broken. • On the other side, Ireland had control of trade, an army and its flag. It could be seen as a step to total independence. They would certainly lose if war continued as well.
The Civil War 1922 -23 • An election result showed that the people wanted the treaty. • Collins ordered the army to attack the IRA • De Valera joined the IRA and so a civil war began. • In August 1922, Griffith died of a heart attack and Collins died in an ambush. William T. Cosgrave became the new head of the Irish Free state, continuing a strong stance against the IRA. He had over 70 IRA men executed. • The IRA did not consult de Valera about the civil war and he tried to talk them down. In May 1923, they agreed to put away their weapons. The war was over but bitterness remained.
Extra sheet • Print page 392 of new book with this.