- Slides: 7
Present Participle • An action that happens at the same time as the main clause Tom lost his keys walking in the park. Tom lost his keys while he was walking in the park. She left the room singing happily She left the room as she was singing happily
• An action that happens just before another action Opening the envelope. I found two concert tickets. I opened the envelope and I found two concert tickets.
• An action which is the result of another action Moments later a bomb exploded, leaving three people dead and twelve others injured. When I entered they all looked at me, making me feel uncomfortable. • A reason for the action in the main clause Having nothing left to do, Paula went home. Since Paula had nothing left to do, she went home. Knowing a little Russian, I had no difficulty making myself understood. As I knew a little Russian, I had no difficulty making myself understood.
Past Participle • It replaces passive voice shelter. Shocked by the explosion, the people ran for shelter. The people were shocked by the explosion and ran for The musicians stood up, surrounded by thunderous applause. The musicians stood up while they were surrounded by thunderous applause.
Perfect Participle • If we want to make it clear that an action happens before another one, we use a perfect participle for the earlier action Having washed the car, I noticed a small scratch on the front right fender. After I washed the car, I noticed a small scratch on the front right fender.
• If the two actions do not follow each other immediately or if the first action happens over a period of time, we use a perfect participle instead of a present participle for the earlier action Having seen the film before, I didn't want to go to the cinema. Mark knew the town well, having lived there all his life.