- Slides: 99
Part 1 1945 -1963
In 1945, in San Francisco the United Nations was formed.
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: US & the Western Democracies GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Why does each side mistrust the other? 1. U. S. doesn’t trust the Soviets because… 2. Stalin’s purging campaigns… will he do the same to Eastern Europe? 3. Broken promises by Stalin 4. USSR did not ensure free elections in Poland 5. USSR did not Allow for selfdetermination in Eastern Europe 6. USSR would not remove troops from Iran 7. Soviet Union developing atomic weapons (how? ) 1. USSR doesn’t trust the U. S. because… 2. US cut off lend-lease aid in 1945 3. Spent millions of lives in WW 2 4. US avoided opening 2 nd front in Western Europe to aid them 5. Claimed US and Britain had “frozen out” Soviets when developing atomic weapons
COLD WAR • 1945 delegates from 45 countries met form the United Nations • The five great powers – United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, and China were permanent members of the Security Council with the right to veto • The UN was intended to promote international cooperation • In 1945 Russia controlled much of Eastern Europe • Stalin’s aim was to protect Russia’s western border with communist allies – Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
An “iron curtain” separated Eastern Europe from Western Europe—and iron curtain of Soviet controlled countries.
The Truman Doctrine 1947 • • • Truman’s doctrine: The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures… We agree to give money and aid to any country resisting communism The U. S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid
After World War II, many parts of Europe were ruins.
The Soviets moved in and took Berlin.
Hunger and devastation was everywhere.
The concentration camps were opened…and the terrible sights were beyond comprehension…
Marshall Plan  1. “European Recovery Program. ” 2. Secretary of State, George Marshall 3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4. $12. 5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
Soviet Response • Felt Germany should be punished for WWII • Strips East Germany of its industry (for punishment and “protection”) • Orders the Soviet Army to block all Aid to Berlin in an attempt to push out the Americans
Remember, the Soviet Union had lost 25 million of its citizens and soldiers, so they felt they deserved a large “share” of Eastern Europe.
In 1948, the Berlin Blockade begins…when the Western Zone refuses to dismantle factories and other infrastructure and send to the Soviet Union for reparations and institutes the Marshal Plan
Berlin Airlift 1. In response the U. S. and Britain begin to airlift supplies to the Berliners
Children hope for chocolates during Berlin Airlift Three air corridors used by the Allies during airlift Waiting in Line for Takeoff
Map of the Zones of Occupation, location of Berlin.
Marshall Plan Propaganda Who is sending money to the European countries?
Agriculture Industry Foreign Trade
Communism remains a threat, but the Marshall plan helps to re-build Europe.
• 1947 Truman gets $400 m to aid Turkey and Greece – to support free people • 1947 George Marshall proposed an economic packet to help war-torn Europe • The soviets refused to participate • 1948 a communist-backed coup in Czechoslovakia persuaded the Americans that they had to stop the spread of communism • The European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan) provided $13 b in aid
• Eisenhower continued the Truman Doctrine • 1953 Stalin died • Khrushchev became the leader and promised “peaceful coexistence” • West Germany became part of NATO in 1955 • 1955 the soviets established the Warsaw Pact • 1958 Khrushchev demanded that the west accept the neutralization of West Berlin or they would sign their rights to East Berlin to East Germany • The western powers did nothing and the deadline passed
Important Soviet Slogans • Khrushchev– “Peaceful Co-existence We must learn to work together to save the world for our grandchildren. It is theme that lead Polish and Hungarian peoples to look for liberalization of economic and intellectual opportunity.
Khrushchev & Solzhenitsyn • Khrushchev’s beginning was to discredit Stalin (de-Stalinization Program) He thus encouraged Russian writer Alex. Solzhenitsyn who wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962). This book portrayed the horrors of life in a soviet prison camp. • (NK was removed in 1964) by 1970 the soviet hard liners saw works like this as an affront to the soviet system the author in sent to prison.
Fighting for Protection 1. NATO a) Policy of collective security b) 12 Original Member Nations c) Western Europe: USA 2. Warsaw Pact a) Policy of collective security b) Eastern Europe: USSR
Red: Soviet Controlled, Warsaw Pact Blue: NATO Countries, Lighter Blue Later Joined NATO Albania: withdrew from Warsaw Pact 1968
Great Britain was a declining power…rationing continued long after the end of the war…
England had a new queen when George VI died…
In Britain, coal and steel were nationalized. This would have a long term detrimental effect on Britain’s economy.
Charles de Gaulle came back to lead France—after the role of President (the executive) was strengthened.
France entered it Fifth Republic from 1958 to the present day.
China • In 1949 the Communists win the Chinese Civil War (150 million dead) • Mao Zedong (Tse Tung) becomes to Communist leader of China and pursues the “great leap forward” its goal is to modernize China • It results in another 100 million deaths • This is seen as a defeat for America who had supported Nationalist China under Chang Ky Shek • “Nationalist China” is now Taiwan Most of Asia is communist
Berlin Crisis • Many East Berliners were escaping to the West • In response in 1961 Khrushchev created the Berlin Wall, which was a manned barrier to prevent East Berliners from fleeing to the West • Kennedy will oppose it and will travel to Berlin in order to show that he was with them • In the end the wall will remain and be reenforced • Also in 1961 Kennedy tries to invade Cuba which leads to the Bay of Pigs fiasco, this moves Cuba closer to Moscow
Oct 15 – Oct 28 the Scariest Days in Human History • Cuban Missile crises began on Oct 15 1962 when a U-2 spy plane found Soviet nuclear missiles in communist Cuba • The U. S. will respond by “quarantining” the island from Soviet ships • Both countries will put their militaries on alert while a Soviet ship approached the Cuba, at the last minute it will turn back and the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles • What people did not know was that Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev had agreed that the U. S. would pull missiles out of Turkey and assure that America would not invade Cuba • Neither side wanted war due to the policy of mutually assured destruction
The ideas of containment and brinkmanship and mutually assured destruction were part of the cold war vocabulary.
Space Race • Sputnik will be the first satellite launched into space and it will be launched by the Soviets, this will scare Americans • Kennedy challenges America to land on the moon by the end of the 60’s • NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) will be founded to lead the U. S. • The Russians will win round 2 when Yuri Gagarin will become the first man in space • The First American in space is Alan Shephard • However the Soviets will fall behind, and in 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin will be the first men to walk on the Moon.
The Berlin wall was built—a 28 mile wall of concrete, barb wire and guard stations. Several hundred would meet their deaths trying to escape.
Khrushchev was kicked out of office in 1964. The next Russian premier was Leonid Brezhnev. He saw the benefit of relaxing relations.
This became known as “détente. ”
The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (Salt I) 1972 and later SALT II all sought to limit the arsenal of nuclear weapons.
The Helsinki Accord focused on Human Rights abuses
But just when things begin to improve, Iran overthrows its Shah, the Russians invade Afghanistan to prop up the weak government there—they do not want Afghanistan’s pro-Soviet government to turn fundamentalist like Iran.
We boycott the Moscow Olympics —and then the Russians boycott the LA Olympics in 1984.
Carter Foreign Policy Afghanistan Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan on December 27, 1979 Carter viewed the action as a prelude to control over the world’s oil supply In 1978, Carter had met with Brezhnev to complete a new SALT II arms control agreement, which limited the number of long-range missiles, nuclear warheads, and bombers for both nations. The administration now withdrew the SALT II treaty from Senate consideration
Leonid Brezhnev Doctrine “If hostile forces turn a country toward capitalism--this will become a problem and will be stopped. ” Nations may have limited sovereignty but cannot leave the Warsaw Pact.
Treaty of Moscow 1970 • Signed between West Germany and the USSR. It established diplomat relations between the two nations and recognized the split between E & W Germany. (on condition the both nations were admitted to the U. N. )
Life Under Brezhnev Russia was a façade or productive power to the outside world—but utterly rotten on the inside.
• Erected in 1862 in Novgorod Veliky by Emperor Alexander II it features 129 human figures of the Russian prominent monarchs, statesmen, warriors, scientists, poets, artists
• Height 52 feet, gross weight 300 tons, bronze casts 65. 5 tons. The monument was disassembled by the German invaders in December 1943 during their occupation of Veliky Novgorod Reconstructed in 1944 by Marshal Stalin's order.
Fear ye God, & keep off Russia
“no experimentation” The Face of Russia to the world • Defenders of the Homeland • Left-Medieval Warrior who turned out the Mongol. • Center—ousted Napoleon. • Right—Repelled Hitler
• “Russia is a riddle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma” • Winston Churchill
MARGARET THATCHER • First woman to become Prime Minister • Thatcherism: anti big government. • Reduced government spending, increased interest rates, reduced taxes tried to “break” labor unions. • Result; dramatically reduced inflation.
Falkland Island War 1982 • In March Argentine forces captured South Georgia Island, killing British personnel. • A 72 day war followed • British war plans and surface craft sunk and damaged Argentine forces.
• In the end Argentina lost 655 men, Britain 236. • Britain recaptured the island • Argentina’s government was discredited and replaced. • UN sanctions were placed on Argentina • Thatcher enhanced her reputation with the victory.
The Irish Problem • Division of Ireland • Northern Ireland (Belfast) Protestants 60%, Catholics 40% • The rest of Ireland is Catholic.
Bloody Sunday Jan 1972 • Due to Irish terrorists actions Brit troops were called in to protect the protestants. • Brit Troops killed 13 Irish Catholics.
Troubles with Ireland • Irish Catholics in Ulster began protests to move the British out. • The IRA began a terrorist campaign to force out the British. • The British army was called into maintain order.
• Terrorist Violence continued through 1997. • PM Tony Blair (1997 -2007) made it a priority to defuse the situation. • 1998 Good Friday Agreement Britain gave Ireland right to run its own parliament it they behaved and did not disturb the Protestants. • 2002 violence erupted again and Parl. was shut down for 5 years—then reopened. • Threat of violence still remains.
France and the 5 th Republic • Charles de Gaulle created the 5 th Republic in 1958 • Major issue was Algeria who wanted independence, de Gaulle eventually gave in • De Gaulle pulled France out of NATO
• De Gaulle worked on foreign affairs which cost France colonies. • He ignored affairs at home which resulted in the 1968 student riots in Paris. • Several hundred thousand workers went on strike. • De Gaulle tried to silence the students
• University students wanted freedom of speech and assembly. • Were aided by common folk who wanted free love, sexual freedom, & education. • Were aided by the communists which upset the French population and thus the army was brought in to end the riots. • De Gaulle resigned after the riots were ended.
• De Gaulle was followed by Georges Pompidou and Valery Giscard. • Both men tried to improve the common workers economic life. • This reduced the hostility caused during the riots of 1968. • To ease international tensions both men worked to promote Western European unity on political and economic fronts.
• In 1981 Francois Mitterrand (Socialist Party) was elected president. • He immediately nationalized France’s major banks. • Additionally, he nationalized major businesses and industries that were highly profitable. • For the lower classes he increased wages and benefits. • Mitterrand was reelected in 1988.
ITALY • Beginning with Gasperi in 1946 Italian government was unstable and usually failed to produce strong leader. • In the 1960 the Christian Democratic. Socialists held power but had no more success then their predecessors.
• POLITICS • By the 1970’s political terrorism was rampant. • Italian Communist party was popular • The country remained politically unstable. • ECONOMICS • Italian industry recovered quickly from the war. • By the 1960’s automobiles, appliances and office equipment were widely popular throughout Europe
The Red Brigade • A militant, leftist Italian Terrorist group that Committed 14, 000 acts of violence in the 1970 s • In 1978 they kidnapped and killed Prime Minister Aldo Moro
• Croats have western ties Very Catholic • Serbs and Greek Orthodox—tied to Russia • In WWII Nazi created the USTASHE a fascist group which Croats joined. The committed atrocities against Serbs. • Tito a nationalist fought Nazis • Liberated country first from Nazi control.
MARSHALL TITO • In 1948 Yugoslavia’s dictator defected. • He was a communist but first a nationalist • He did not owe his position to the Russian Army • He served as a model to other eastern nations as to how the Soviets could be defeated
• Tito kept control as a feared (loved) dictator. Accepted handouts from the Wests and the Russians—if they wanted to keep him. Developed a successful economy (Marshall Plan) so people followed him. • Elected President for Life.
The End of Yugoslavia Following Tito’s death in 1980 ethnic issues erupted again. Pro Western groups Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia voted for independence. • Since within these territories lived large numbers of Serbs (minority) violent ethnic cleansing movements took place from BOTH sides between 1991 -1999
Slobodan Milosovic • He is a strong SERBIAN nationalist who is upset the what has been done to the Serbs. • He lead Yugo (now only Serbia and Montenegro to attack Bosnia and regain Serbian territory.
Remains of a Bosnian woman (Muslim) and her unborn baby from a mass grave filled in 1992. • In recapturing their territory Serbian troops engaged in mass killing, rape, and destruction of homes. • Croatians troops responded in kind. • Croatian troops were supported by the western democracies
• Europe was appalled at this Ethnic slaughter thought to be a throwback to the genocide of WWII.
Dayton Peace Accord 1996 • Engineered by NATO and USA a cease fire was created. • Both sides agreed to a partition of Bosnia along supposed ethnic lines. • Efforts was enforced by UN peace-keepers.
• The Dayton Accord took traditional lands away from the Serbs who were now left without adequate territory. Milosovic now turned to Kosovo, populated by mostly Albanians to seize land for his people
• To halt this new campaign President Clinton led a NATO bombing operation against Serbian “targets” to end the killing. • At the order of the NATO forces in 2001 Milosovic was removed from office and placed on trial at the Hague, Netherlands, for Crimes Against Humanity. He died of natural causes in 2006 before the trial was completed. He was judged guilty.