Parasitology 寄生蟲學 Handbook of medical parasitology Edited by Zaman and Loh
寄生蟲學課程內容 • Parasites 寄生蟲種類 • Morphology 形態 • Pathogenicity 致病性 • Life cycle of parasites 生活史 • Clinical aspects 臨床症狀 • Treatment 治療 • Diagnosis 檢驗
Introduction to Parasitology Classification of parasites International Code Zoological Nomenclature Morphology Genetic structure Species ; types ; races ; strains • Chemotaxonomy • Serotaxonomy • Electron microscopic identification
Introduction to Parasitology Life cycle of parasites Host：definitive host intermediate host Routes of infection Skin penetration Oral infection (ingestion) Mucous membrane infection Inoculation by arthropod vector Sexual intercourse (venereal transmission) Congenital transmission
Introduction to Parasitology Classification of parasites Protozoa原蟲 Helminths 蠕蟲： Cestodes絛蟲 Trematodes吸蟲 Nematodes線蟲 Arthropods節肢動物 Diagnostic techniques檢驗技術
Terms Used in Parasitology and Infectious Diseases Parasite 寄生蟲 - An organism which is dependent on another parasitoid organism for its survival. Host 宿主 - An organism which harbours the parasite and is usually larger than the parasite. Ectoparasite 外寄生 - A parasite which lives on the outside of the host. Endoparasite 內寄生 - A parasite which lives within the body of the host. . Parasitoid
Facultative parasite 兼性寄生- A parasite which capable of living both freely and as a parasite. Obligate parasite 絕對寄生- A parasite which is completely dependent upon the host. Commensal片利共生 - A parasite which does not damage the host. Symbiont共生物- A parasite which contributes to the welfare of the host.
Symbiosis 共生作用- A situation in which host-parasite relationship results in advantages rather than disadvantages. Pathogen 病原- A parasite which is able to produce disease. Pathogenicity 致病性-Is the ability of a parasite to produce disease. Virulence 致病毒力- Refers to the degree of pathogenicity. Reservior host 儲備宿主 - Where the parasite is maintained in nature and which acts as a source for individual new cases.
Intermediate host中間宿主 - A host in which the intermediate stages of the parasite develop. Definitive host 終宿主- A host in which the definitive or the final stages of the parasite. Paratenic host 保幼宿主 - A host which acts as a transporting agent for the parasite and in which the parasite does not undergo any development. Infection 感染 - Means the presence of a parasite in or on the tissues of a host. Such colonization may or may not have a deleterious effect on the host.
Disease 疾病 - If parasite has a deleterious effect on the host. Infestation 侵染, 感染 - The presence of arthropods on the skin of the host. Epidemic 流行性 - The sudden appearance of an infection which spreads rapidly and involves large population. Endemic 地方性, 本土性 - An infection which has always existed in a region. Pandemic 全球性– A widespread epidemic, usually of world-wide proportion. These are mainly viral diseases.
Incubation 潛伏期 – The time between the entrance of a parasite into a host and the beginning of the disease. Habitat 棲所 – The natural abode of a parasite species. Ecology 生態 – The relationship between a population of an organism and the environment. When this is a balanced relationship the host remains healthy. Disease is manifested when this relationship breaks down. Zoonosis 人畜共通疾病 – Diseases of animals which are transmissible to man. Anthroponosis 人畜共通疾病 -Diseases of man which are transmissible to animals.
Incidence 發生率– Is a number of new cases occurring within a given period of time, often expressed as the number per 100, 000 people per year. Prevalence 盛行率 – Is the proportion of people who have the disease at a certain time in a designated area. Opportunistic parasites or infections 伺機性寄生蟲或感染– Parasites which are not normally pathogens but become so due to impairment of host resistance. These are assuming increasing clinical importance because of the AIDS epidemic. Morbidity 致病(罹患)率 – Incidence of disease in a given population, including both nonfatal and fatal cases.
Mortality死亡率 – Incidence of death in a given population. In vivo 體內 – In the body, in a living organism. In vitro 體外– In culture medium. Monoxenous species– parasite fully develop in one host Heteroxenous species– parasite development more than one host
Cell-mediated immunity細胞中介免疫 – An immune response generated by the activities of non-antibody producing cells. Humoral immunity體液免疫 – An immune response due to the activities of antibodies. Active immunity主動免疫 – An immune state achieved by self production of antibodies. Passive immunity被動免疫 – An immune state resulting from transfer of antibodies from an immune to a non immune individual.