Paper presented at the DEE Conference CambridgeUK 6

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Paper presented at the DEE Conference, Cambridge/UK, 6 -7 September 2007 Meaningful Double-Loop Learning

Paper presented at the DEE Conference, Cambridge/UK, 6 -7 September 2007 Meaningful Double-Loop Learning in Educational Games: When Players Become Developers Michael Vogel Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences [email protected] de © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 1

Objectives and Structure of the Paper 1. Find a way to enable meaningful double-loop

Objectives and Structure of the Paper 1. Find a way to enable meaningful double-loop learning in educational games 2. Illustrate this approach by means of the Cruise Industry Planning Game © Prof. Dr. Michael P. Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 2

Double-Loop Learning = First-Loop + Second-Loop Learning Governing variables Action strategies Consequences First learning

Double-Loop Learning = First-Loop + Second-Loop Learning Governing variables Action strategies Consequences First learning loop (doing things right) Second learning loop (doing the right things) Source: Argyris, C. and Schön, D. (1978). Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Reading/Mass. : Addison Wesley. © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 3

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Doing and Thinking Concrete experience “Hands-on” Active experimentation Reflective Observation

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Doing and Thinking Concrete experience “Hands-on” Active experimentation Reflective Observation “Minds-on” Abstract conceptualization Based on Young, M. R. (2002). Experiential Learning = Hands-On + Minds-On. Marketing Education Review 12 (1): 43 -51 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 4

Game Playing and Development Mirrors Structure of First-Loop & Second-Loop Learning Game development Governing

Game Playing and Development Mirrors Structure of First-Loop & Second-Loop Learning Game development Governing variables Game playing Action strategies Consequences First learning loop Second learning loop © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 5

Nested cycles of experiential learning Participants = Experimenters & Guinea Pigs Concrete experience Active

Nested cycles of experiential learning Participants = Experimenters & Guinea Pigs Concrete experience Active experimentation Game playing: first-loop learning Reflective observation Abstract conceptualization Concrete experience Game development: second-loop learning Active experimentation Reflective observation Abstract conceptualization © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 6

The Cruise Industry Planning Game Cycle Setup for Single-Loop Learning Passenger numbers per ship

The Cruise Industry Planning Game Cycle Setup for Single-Loop Learning Passenger numbers per ship 5 Produce: • income statement • cash flow statement • balance sheet 1 • Analyse data • Develop or reassess strategy • Plan next season 2 • Make decisions (decision form) • Explain decisions (decision journal) Competitive information 4 Allocate total demand to ships © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences 3 Decision variables per ship External parameters Compute the ships’ competitiveness scores page 7

Competitiveness Scores Converging Evidence of First-Loop Learning Summer term 2006 Competitiveness score 18% 16%

Competitiveness Scores Converging Evidence of First-Loop Learning Summer term 2006 Competitiveness score 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 1 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences 2 3 Round 4 5 page 8

Evolution of the Cruise Industry Planning Game History of Innovations Summer term 2006 Game

Evolution of the Cruise Industry Planning Game History of Innovations Summer term 2006 Game playing Brand value Revision of concept & sales competitiveness commissions score formula Several ports & itinerary planning Possibility to change the financing mix Game development © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 9

Competitiveness Score as Docking Point A Practical Approach to Game Extensions Summer term 2006

Competitiveness Score as Docking Point A Practical Approach to Game Extensions Summer term 2006 Ship category Destination ports Cruise rate Port attractiveness score Port differentiation score Competitiveness score Relative rate of sales commission Relative brand value Advertising expenditure © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences MARKET SIMULATION Rate of sales commission page 10

Thank you very much. mvogel@hs-bremerhaven. de © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied

Thank you very much. [email protected] de © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 11