Pakistan There is no god but GOD The

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Pakistan “There is no god but GOD” The Story of Islam’s Rise in South

Pakistan “There is no god but GOD” The Story of Islam’s Rise in South Asia

Indus River Valley: Home to one of the earliest civilizations Taxila illustrates the different

Indus River Valley: Home to one of the earliest civilizations Taxila illustrates the different stages in the development of a city on the Indus, alternately influenced by Persia, Greece and Central Asia and which, from the 5 th century B. C. to the 2 nd century A. D. , was an important Buddhist centre of learning.

Before the Turks In 711 C. E. , the powerful Muslim governor of Iraq

Before the Turks In 711 C. E. , the powerful Muslim governor of Iraq wished to gain greater control over shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean. He mounted an invasion of South Asia, and the Sind province in modern Pakistan became the first Muslim province in India. For 200 years, it was the only Muslim province in the region.

Moghul Empire 1526– 1707 Barbur, a direct descendent of Timur, a Mongol war lord

Moghul Empire 1526– 1707 Barbur, a direct descendent of Timur, a Mongol war lord who had left India 150 prior, was a military genius. When he invaded India in 1525, he wound up founding the Moghul Empire. The Moghul Empire became the peak of Muslim civilization in India. By the time he died in 1530, Babur had established his power. His grandson, Akbar, consolidated the Mongol’s power over Northern India and built the Taj Mahal (one of the wonders of the world) as a memorial to his late Hindu wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

European Colonialism Under the influence of colonial rule, South Asia adopted western-inspired legal codes

European Colonialism Under the influence of colonial rule, South Asia adopted western-inspired legal codes and displaced Islamic Law producing a anglo-muhammad law

Colonial Era Gives First Impetus to a Pakistani State The Aligarh Movement (Two Nation’s

Colonial Era Gives First Impetus to a Pakistani State The Aligarh Movement (Two Nation’s Theory) began in 1857 after the failure of a series of revolts headed by South Asians against British rule. Under the leadership of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, the Muhammadan Anglo. Oriental College (Aligarh Muslim University) was established and provided the training for the next generation of Muslim leadership.

Legacy of Aligarh Muslim University Sir Syed clearly foresaw the imperative need for the

Legacy of Aligarh Muslim University Sir Syed clearly foresaw the imperative need for the Muslims to acquire proficiency in the English language and "Western Sciences" if the Muslim community were to maintain its social and political clout, particularly in Northern India. His objective was to build a college in tune with the British education system but without compromising its Islamic values. Algarh Muslim University was the first residential educational institution that was established by public or government in India. It produced Muslims who became active in the political system of the British Raj.

Indic Islam South Asia has always been home to a diverse group of people.

Indic Islam South Asia has always been home to a diverse group of people. The Islamic voice has never been one; rather, it has many understandings but always one community (Iqbal). The following movements were prominent in the nineteenth century: 1. Fundamentalist – led by Shah Wali Allah (Delphi), and Sayyid Ahmad Shahid (Bareilly) 2. Religious Revivalist – led by Maulana Muhammad Ilyas, Jamaati Islami, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi. 3. Nationalist-Traditionalist – led by Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Syed Ameer Ali, Muhammad Iqbal.

Muslim League (1906) Founded by the Aga Khan III in 1906, it was an

Muslim League (1906) Founded by the Aga Khan III in 1906, it was an all Indian Muslim association determined to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims. Muhammad Iqbal (spiritual father of Pakistan) was one of its leaders and advocated a separate Indian Muslim state (1930). In 1940 Muhammad Ali Jinnah (father of Pakistan) demanded a Muslim state against the protest of the Indian National Congress. The League was able to unite the Indian Muslims and won the right to form Pakistan (“There is no god but GOD”). The League fractured into a number of political parties in 1953, reconstituted itself but was never successful after the 1970 elections.

Pakistan Established in 1947 Only Muslim nation established in the name of Islam. A

Pakistan Established in 1947 Only Muslim nation established in the name of Islam. A major problem arose immediately; namely, what would be the role of Islam in politics and state? A fierce ideological divide arose with the traditionalists and fundamentalists (ulama, Jamaati Islami) pitted against the modernists and professionals (Iqbal, Jinnah). The ulama wanted an Islamic constitution, introduction of shariah law and restoration of socio-religious institutions created during the medieval era. Jinnah wanted an Islamic state but one where Islam is a faith, religious, moral system whose cardinal beliefs are practiced by Muslims. Islam as a political ideology would establish separate communities where Muslims could create their own Islamic set of values consistent with the Quran.

Conflict Produces Compromise Working with the Jamaati Islami, Pakistan’s first Prime Minister Nawabzada Liaquat

Conflict Produces Compromise Working with the Jamaati Islami, Pakistan’s first Prime Minister Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan agrees to the passage of the Objectives Resolution (1949). The National Assembly, not the ulama, would decide if any law was repugnant to the Quran and shariah. Pakistan’s leadership held the formal power, but the ulamas were supported by the masses. This led to years of conflict that sometimes escalated into civil strife and violence.

Conflict with India leads to Civil War (1971) The elections of 1970 brought a

Conflict with India leads to Civil War (1971) The elections of 1970 brought a surprising victory by the East Pakistan’s Awami Party gave them a majority of seats in the Pakistani Assembly which entitled them to form the government. However, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto refused to give the premiership to the Awami Party leader, Sheikh Mujib. Instead, the Awami Party was outlawed and its leaders put in jail. This action caused a great migration of East Pakistanis into India. Finally, in the fall of 1971, the Indian army attacked Pakistani troops and defeated the military in two weeks. In the end, a new country had emerged, Bangladesh, and the Pakistani military had been soundly defeated. The aftermath was a time of soul searching which gave impetus to a revivalists movement that continues to challenge Pakistan today.

Orthodox Islam is a Significant Cultural Tradition Orthodox Islam in Pakistan is represented by

Orthodox Islam is a Significant Cultural Tradition Orthodox Islam in Pakistan is represented by the Sunni Ulama. They have three schools that support their views: 1. ) Deobandi, 2. ) Barelwi (Surfi-oriented), 3. ) Wahhabi school of Ahl-I hadith (extreme right-wing). The ulama control a large network of mosques in cities and towns (not state supported). They also have thousands of madrasahs that are influencing the next generation of Pakistan’s religious and political leadership. The state cannot control these institutions because they are privately funded. However, there have been recent dialogues between the ulama and the modern educated elite. This sharing of intellectual space and common language holds promise for Pakistan’s future development as a modern nation.

Cultural Diversity 97% of Pakistanis are Muslim. There are 10 -15% Shiis and 85

Cultural Diversity 97% of Pakistanis are Muslim. There are 10 -15% Shiis and 85 -90% are Sunnis. A majority of the Shiis belong to the Ashari (Twelver) school while a minority subscribe to the Ismailis school. The Sunni’s primary school is the Hanafi school of law and a minority belong to the Hanbali school. The balance 3% are either Hindu, Christian, or Parsees. The two schools of thought which impact the nation’s ideological character continue to divide rather than unify. The one school claims that Pakistan was created in the name of Islam and be govern by Islamic law, while the other school believes that Pakistan was created as a safeguard for South Asian political, economic interests. It was not intended to be a theological state.

Pakistan: Living Islam in a Social Context • Muhammad Iqbal “ Islam is more

Pakistan: Living Islam in a Social Context • Muhammad Iqbal “ Islam is more than a creed, it is a community, nation, locus in which mankind attains individuality. Mohammad founded a society based on freedom, equality and brotherhood” (Esposito 182) Iqbal uses the word “tawid” (unity of God) to emphasize the supremacy of God’s law and absolute equality of Islam’s society. How true can the Pakistani people be to those principles will determine how influential it will become in the modern world.