Outline What is sprawl Problems of sprawl Coping

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Outline What is sprawl? Problems of sprawl Coping Strategies n n n Transit Oriented

Outline What is sprawl? Problems of sprawl Coping Strategies n n n Transit Oriented Development Smart Growth New Urbanism Critique of coping strategies

What is Sprawl? Low density development on the edge of cities and towns, poorly

What is Sprawl? Low density development on the edge of cities and towns, poorly planned, land consumptive, autodependent, and designed without respect to its surroundings

Housing At Very Low Density 0. 5 -2 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City

Housing At Very Low Density 0. 5 -2 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At Low Density 2 -4 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At Low Density 2 -4 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At Medium Density 4 -7 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At Medium Density 4 -7 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At Medium High Density 7 -15 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of

Housing At Medium High Density 7 -15 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At High Density 15 -25 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At High Density 15 -25 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Housing At Very High Density 25 -43 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of

Housing At Very High Density 25 -43 Dwelling Units/Acre Source: Planning Center, City of Clovis

Traits of Sprawl n n n Unlimited outward extension of development Low-density residential and

Traits of Sprawl n n n Unlimited outward extension of development Low-density residential and commercial settlements Leapfrog development Fragmentation of powers over land use Dominance of transportation by private automobiles Segregation of types of land uses in different zones

Sprawl in United States

Sprawl in United States

Measuring Sprawl may be said to occur when the rate at which land is

Measuring Sprawl may be said to occur when the rate at which land is converted to nonagricultural or nonnatural uses exceeds the rate of population growth w Measure: Per capita Land consumption Baltimore’s growth, 1792 -1992

Sprawl in American Cities

Sprawl in American Cities

Problems of Sprawl Social problem n Alienation; poverty concentration Economic problem n Infrastructure costs

Problems of Sprawl Social problem n Alienation; poverty concentration Economic problem n Infrastructure costs Environmental problem n Pollution, loss of farmlands Health problem n Obesity

Annual hours of delay person on all trav during peak hours of 6 to

Annual hours of delay person on all trav during peak hours of 6 to 9 a. m. and 4 to 7 p *Includes Orange and Ventura counties. Note: Delays eased during recessionary periods due to a combination of road improvements and slower traffic growth. Source: Texas Transportation Institute's 2003 Urban Mobility Study [from LA Times, Oct. 5, 2003]

Household spending on transportation, by metropolitan area, during 2000 -2001: *Includes Los Angeles, Orange,

Household spending on transportation, by metropolitan area, during 2000 -2001: *Includes Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino and Ventura counties. **Includes Alameda, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties. Source: Surface Transportation Policy Project analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data [from Los Angeles Times, Oct. 6, 2003]

Transit Oriented Development “Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is moderate to higher density development, located

Transit Oriented Development “Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is moderate to higher density development, located within an easy walk of a major transit stop, generally with a mix of residential, employment and shopping opportunities designed for pedestrians without excluding the auto. TOD can be new construction or redevelopment of one or more buildings whose design and orientation facilitate transit use. ” Source: Technical Advisory Committee to the Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study

Transit Oriented Development § § § Neo-Traditional, New. Urbanist development Walkable community Reinforces the

Transit Oriented Development § § § Neo-Traditional, New. Urbanist development Walkable community Reinforces the use of public transportation High density Mixed housing type Source: Report on Smart Infill, Greenbelt Alliance Why TOD? Provides alternatives to the consequences of § low-density suburban sprawl and § automobile- dependent land use patterns Helps reduce the shortage of affordable housing

Benefits of TOD can lower rates of air pollution and energy consumption TOD can

Benefits of TOD can lower rates of air pollution and energy consumption TOD can help conserve resource lands and open space TOD can play a role in economic development Tool to help revitalize aging downtowns and declining urban neighborhoods, and to enhance tax revenues for local jurisdictions. TOD can decrease infrastructure costs It can help reduce overall infrastructure costs for expanding water, sewage and roads to local governments by up to 25% through more compact and infill development.

Innovations in Bus Service Metro RAPID, Los Angeles Ø Advanced Passenger Information Real-time and

Innovations in Bus Service Metro RAPID, Los Angeles Ø Advanced Passenger Information Real-time and new multi-lingual displays Ø Signal Priority System High-quality signal communication Ø Level Boarding and Alighting Low-floor buses to provide level platform and improve access Ø Color-Coded Buses and Stations To share visual cues including colors and graphics themes Ø Enhanced Passenger

Transformation [Design Strategy] Better Use of Existing Roads & Highways Bus Rapid Transit in

Transformation [Design Strategy] Better Use of Existing Roads & Highways Bus Rapid Transit in Center Lanes of Existing Roads

Transformation [Design Strategy] Taming the Suburban Highway Work with large adjacent landowners; project initiated

Transformation [Design Strategy] Taming the Suburban Highway Work with large adjacent landowners; project initiated by landowner at right Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Taming the Suburban Highway Buildings moved up to street; landscaping & bike lanes added;

Taming the Suburban Highway Buildings moved up to street; landscaping & bike lanes added; parking and street grid at rear Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Taming the Suburban Highway Mixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties

Taming the Suburban Highway Mixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Taming the Suburban Highway Mixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties

Taming the Suburban Highway Mixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Taming the Suburban Highway Mixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties

Taming the Suburban Highway Mixed-use buildings added one at a time on adjacent properties Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Taming the Suburban Highway Street trees added to median Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District

Taming the Suburban Highway Street trees added to median Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Taming the Suburban Highway Alternative with two lanes each way for through traffic and

Taming the Suburban Highway Alternative with two lanes each way for through traffic and service lane with diagonal parking Source: Thomas Jefferson Planning District Commission Charlottesville-Albemarle Metropolitan Planning Organization

Smart growth principles Create Range of Housing Opportunities Create Walkable Neighborhoods Encourage Community Collaboration

Smart growth principles Create Range of Housing Opportunities Create Walkable Neighborhoods Encourage Community Collaboration Foster Communities with a Strong Sense of Place Mix Land Uses Preserve Open Space, Farmland, Natural Beauty and Critical Environmental Areas Provide a Variety of Transportation Choices Strengthen and Direct Development Towards Existing Communities

New Urbanism Principles Region: Metropolis, City and Town Neighborhood, District, & Corridor Block, Street,

New Urbanism Principles Region: Metropolis, City and Town Neighborhood, District, & Corridor Block, Street, and Building

Principles of New Urbanism Walkability n Pedestrian friendly streets Connectivity n Integrated street network

Principles of New Urbanism Walkability n Pedestrian friendly streets Connectivity n Integrated street network Mixed use and Diversity n n Residential, commercial Age, income, race Mixed housing Quality Physical Design

Principles of New Urbanism Traditional Neighborhood Structure n Discernible center and edge Increased Density

Principles of New Urbanism Traditional Neighborhood Structure n Discernible center and edge Increased Density n Compactness Smart Transportation n Multi-modal Sustainability n Minimal environmental impact Quality of Life

New Urbanist Projects Laguna West 210 developments under construction or complete in the United

New Urbanist Projects Laguna West 210 developments under construction or complete in the United States Kentlands Seaside

Seaside, FL –High density –Picket fences –Paved roads –Small setback

Seaside, FL –High density –Picket fences –Paved roads –Small setback

Kentlands, MD Market Street Overlooking porch High Density

Kentlands, MD Market Street Overlooking porch High Density

The Village Naval Training Center San Diego, CA

The Village Naval Training Center San Diego, CA

Moore Square Museums Magnet Middle School Raleigh, NC

Moore Square Museums Magnet Middle School Raleigh, NC

Playa Vista, CA Village Residential Commericial

Playa Vista, CA Village Residential Commericial

Playa Vista, CA High Density Housing

Playa Vista, CA High Density Housing

Critique of Coping Strategies (Macro) Historical context of urban growth n Durability of physical

Critique of Coping Strategies (Macro) Historical context of urban growth n Durability of physical capital Sprawl not environmentally problematic n Agriculture is more polluting Freedom of choice n Residential preferences Is compactness really desirable? n n U shaped infrastructure costs Overcrowding; noise; incompatible uses

Critique of Coping Strategies (Micro) Spatial Determinism (Harvey) n Physical solution to social/ economic

Critique of Coping Strategies (Micro) Spatial Determinism (Harvey) n Physical solution to social/ economic issues Untenable self-containment n n Job centers/ housing duality Increase in non-work trips Transit Inefficiencies Weak Sense of Community Social equity n Elitist approach; limited mixed housing

Conclusion Prospects of coping strategies n n n Control of outward movement Inner-area revitalization

Conclusion Prospects of coping strategies n n n Control of outward movement Inner-area revitalization Design innovation Land natural resources preservation Transportation reorientation Problems of NU for controlling sprawl n n Macro level problems Micro level problems

Sprawl or New Urbanism? Mixed use Town Center Suburban Strip OR

Sprawl or New Urbanism? Mixed use Town Center Suburban Strip OR