Outdoor Lighting Module 4 Lighting Control Outdoor ISRUniversity

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Outdoor Lighting Module 4 Lighting Control (Outdoor) ISR-University of Coimbra, October 2017

Outdoor Lighting Module 4 Lighting Control (Outdoor) ISR-University of Coimbra, October 2017

Outdoor Lighting - Module 4 Lighting Control (Outdoor) Objectives: - Lighting control systems are

Outdoor Lighting - Module 4 Lighting Control (Outdoor) Objectives: - Lighting control systems are very important when it comes to energy savings and comfort; - This topic allows the target group to receive the basic information about the different control strategies and technologies and their impacts; - Knowledge of control strategies, manual or automatic, such as occupancy sensing, time scheduling or daylight harvesting, will allow trainees to choose the best strategies depending on each situation and necessity. 2

Outdoor Lighting - Module 4 Lighting Control (Outdoor) Topics: a) b) c) d) e)

Outdoor Lighting - Module 4 Lighting Control (Outdoor) Topics: a) b) c) d) e) Control strategies Conventional controls (on-off, dimming) Psycho-social evaluation study (Évora – Portugal) Traffic detection Intelligent controls - monitoring and remote management systems 3

Control strategies • Various strategies of different levels of complexity have been developed over

Control strategies • Various strategies of different levels of complexity have been developed over the years for choosing when to activate street lighting; • Each strategy has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some of them can be mixed for more complex strategies; • Control systems are usually automatic systems that regulate the lighting system operation, in response to an external signal; • These automatic systems optimize the use of street lighting installations, usually resulting in significant energy savings, without reduction of the visual comfort levels required at each location and / or activity. 4

Control strategies • There are two types of control: • ON/OFF: • • •

Control strategies • There are two types of control: • ON/OFF: • • • Simple timers; Astronomical timers; Daylight harvesting sensors. • Coontinuous Regulation: • • Dimming • Fixed timing or; • Controlled by traffic flow, weather, lighting conditions, etc. Telemanagement systems 5

ON/OFF control Simple timers • In street lighting systems it is important to know

ON/OFF control Simple timers • In street lighting systems it is important to know in which situation the level of ambient lighting triggers the lights’ activation; • The control cannot be fully effective using simple timers since on days of rain or heavy fog it may be necessary to activate the lighting system for safety reasons; • In addition, the sunrise and sunset times, as well as the cloudiness are not constant; • For these reasons, it is increasingly necessary to adopt more efficient solutions in the control system. 6

ON/OFF control Astronomical timers • Astronomical timers have precise information about sunrise and sunset

ON/OFF control Astronomical timers • Astronomical timers have precise information about sunrise and sunset times for any given geographical position; • They do not use any sensor to detect the rise or set time of Sun, they use astronomical mathematics calculations; • These calculations are based on the Latitude/Longitude values or city selection with high level of prediction accuracy; • Energy savings can reach up to 10%. Source: avilaearth. weebly. com 7

ON/OFF control Astronomical timers • The astronomical timers have the following operating characteristics: •

ON/OFF control Astronomical timers • The astronomical timers have the following operating characteristics: • Daily calculation, for on/off actions, considering the latitude and longitude, in degrees and minutes, where it is installed; • Valid for any geographical region, having only to program it previously with latitude/longitude; • Automatic change of the winter and summer clock time ; • Possibility of additional programming other than astronomical programming (default); • Possibility of inclusion in the astronomical cycle, of a different schedule for holidays and other special events. 8

ON/OFF control Astronomical timers • It adjusts the control of the lighting network to

ON/OFF control Astronomical timers • It adjusts the control of the lighting network to the time of the year, without using any sensor or ICT system; • Isolated control system, or it can serve as an auxiliary equipment to light flux regulators and/or remote management systems; • However, astronomical timers do not take into account idiosyncrasies of the local geography, such as large hills or mountains blocking the sun at dawn or dusk; • Astronomical timers can make no predictions about weather conditions such as cloudiness and storms which might require artificial lighting even during official daylight hours. 9

ON/OFF control Daylight harvesting sensors • In contrast to using astronomical timers, daylight harvesting

ON/OFF control Daylight harvesting sensors • In contrast to using astronomical timers, daylight harvesting strategies use photo sensors to detect the ambient light and adjust the artificial lighting if the ambient light levels fall or increase beyond certain threshold values; • The light sensors will react to the change in brightness by turning the light on or off according to the level set, thus allowing efficient operation of the street lighting circuits. 10

ON/OFF control Daylight harvesting sensors • The light sensor can be placed centrally, sending

ON/OFF control Daylight harvesting sensors • The light sensor can be placed centrally, sending a signal to a set of luminaires, or it can be an pre-installed on each individual luminaire, controlling them separately; • The centralized system is less expensive but sometimes it cannot reflect all luminaire conditions (such as especially shaded areas or areas with different weather conditions); • The individual solution is more expensive and also requires more maintenance, since one of the disadvantages of this systems is that the light sensor requires regular cleaning in order to ensure their proper function. 11

Dimming • The International Standards for road lighting (CIE 115 -2010) and the European

Dimming • The International Standards for road lighting (CIE 115 -2010) and the European Standard (EN 13201), allow a reduction in the luminosity of roads during the hours of least road traffic as long as the uniformity of illumination is maintained. Source: Baenziger, Thomas D. , “Management of public lighting”; Right Light 5 12

Dimming • The luminous flux regulation systems (dimming) allows the regulation of the luminous

Dimming • The luminous flux regulation systems (dimming) allows the regulation of the luminous intensity in periods of less activity; • In night periods of less traffic and without risk of loss of any of the functional and safety qualities of street lighting systems, these can be dimmed; • These systems allow to decrease the level of luminance, not limiting the range of the luminous devices and being able to ensure the adequate sensation of security; • In areas where statistically there are often road accidents or high crime rates, dimming is not recommended. 13

Dimming • Dimming can be combined with astronomical timers, daylight harvesting and traffic detection

Dimming • Dimming can be combined with astronomical timers, daylight harvesting and traffic detection schemes; • The transitions between the various operating conditions must be slow so that the change in the level of illumination becomes imperceptible to the user; • LEDs are suitable for dimming as they can be dimmed smoothly without technical complications (no reduction in lifetime); • Special care must be taken with other lamp types. For instance lowpressure sodium can produce drastic colour shifts when dimmed and other technologies are limited in the minimal voltage value. 14

Dimming • Flux regulators have a voltage stabilization function, which helps to increase the

Dimming • Flux regulators have a voltage stabilization function, which helps to increase the lifetime lamps (thus reducing maintenance costs); • There are two types of centralized light flux regulation systems for public lighting circuits: • Electronic => using power electronic components; • Autotransformer => using autotransformers whose control of the diferent voltage levels is carried out by: • • • Electromechanical relays / contactors; Electronic (triacs, thyristors); Motorized autotransformers • Savings can be from 25 to 50%. 15

Dimming with voltage control • Typical savings and minimal voltage possible for each lamp

Dimming with voltage control • Typical savings and minimal voltage possible for each lamp technology: Lamp Minimal voltage (V) Savings (%) Mercury 200 26 -30 High pressure sodium 183 45 -50 Low pressure sodium 190 35 Fluorescent 190 35 -45 CFLs 190 30 -45 Metal halide 183 40 16

Dimming • It should be noted that most light flux regulators systems work with

Dimming • It should be noted that most light flux regulators systems work with voltage control (voltage reduction). Thus, in circuits with more than one type of lamp and with a high probability of having different number of hours in service, the dimming result in each lamp may be different; • In addition, for cabinets that control less than 50 luminaires, the use of light flux regulators can be economically unattractive; • LED lamps use new and more advanced and efficient dimming technologies; • Not all LED lamps can be dimmed. Their electronic circuits (drivers) have to be prepared for such operation. And sometimes manufacturers, to prevent electronic catastrophic failures, limit the dimming in LED lamps to about 10% of total flux. 17

Dimming EDP Psychosocial evaluation TOTAL: ~650 people; ~2. 000 interviews. (Public plaza on Évora,

Dimming EDP Psychosocial evaluation TOTAL: ~650 people; ~2. 000 interviews. (Public plaza on Évora, Portugal) 12 12 9 9 3 9 6 6 100% 12 3 100% 80% Current 60% 50% 0%Por-do-sol +0: 15 100% 22: 00 R - Residents 40% 2: 00 Nascer-do-sol -0: 15 60% 80% • Both did not approve. 50% 40% 0% RM 100% 80% Scenario 2 70% 50% 60% 40% 30% 0% RM 100% 80% Scenario 3 M - Merchants RM 100% 80% Scenario 1 3 6 70% 40% 60% 30% 22: 00 accepted • Generally for the whole city. • prefer more intensity in the beginning of the morning period • receptive to minor adjustments • minor changes are not detected by the population! 20% 0% Sunset +0: 15 • Merchants less recepetive to this change. Conclusions: Sunrise -0: 15 With pedestrians No pedestrians 18

Dimming EDP Psychosocial evaluation (Eco. Road - Pedestrian/Cycling root - Évora, Portugal) 12 9

Dimming EDP Psychosocial evaluation (Eco. Road - Pedestrian/Cycling root - Évora, Portugal) 12 9 12 3 9 6 100% 12 3 9 6 96% 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 Current 9 3 6 87% 96% R- Residents M - Merchants C - Cyclists 78% 0% Sunrise -0: 15 Sunset +0: 15 100% 78% 0% R M C 100% Scenario 2 • Less security; • Generated difficulties for users. Sunrise -2: 00 Sunset +1: 00 R M C 100% Scenario 3 78% accepted • Generally by all. • users do not accept: ‐ solutions that put your safety at risk ‐ solutions that interfere with your daily life ‐ difficulties in changing the operating periods 0% Sunset +0: 15 approved by R • Not and M. Sunrise -1: 00 Sunset +0: 30 100% 0% Conclusions R M C Scenario 1 TOTAL: ~650 people; ~2. 000 interviews. 22: 00 Sunrise -0: 15 19

Changes in the colour temperature EDP Psychosocial evaluation (Évora, Portugal) TOTAL: ~650 people; ~2.

Changes in the colour temperature EDP Psychosocial evaluation (Évora, Portugal) TOTAL: ~650 people; ~2. 000 interviews. Before (Yellow from HP Sodium) R - Residential M - Merchants Conclusions R M Now (LED White) • Accepted. • Advantages: ‐ better visibility; ‐ reduces costs; ‐ increase sharpness of objects and people. • Acceptance of the colour change Source: EDP, Portuguese Utility 20

Traffic detection • Reducing road/street level of illumination in compliance with the requirements stipulated

Traffic detection • Reducing road/street level of illumination in compliance with the requirements stipulated in EN 13201 offers potentially large energy savings; • In order to ensure that traffic participants can still navigate these roads safely, traffic detection systems can be installed which increase the level of illumination whenever it is needed; • The most common technology for detecting traffic – whether motorized vehicles, cyclists, or pedestrians – are motion sensors and more recently with computer vision systems. 21

Traffic detection • Computer vision systems are more complex and expensive, but can serve

Traffic detection • Computer vision systems are more complex and expensive, but can serve also to automatically detect objects, animals and other possible anomalies in roads and streets; • They make the detection and send an alarm to the traffic control or they can takes several automatic decisions, as for dimming of lighting; • Types of motion sensors include: • • • Ultrasonic; Microwave; Infrared. 22

Traffic detection • Computer vision systems are the most accurate systems for traffic control,

Traffic detection • Computer vision systems are the most accurate systems for traffic control, but motion detection sensors can also be combined so that the disadvantages of one type are compensated by the capabilities of another; • The most common combination is microwave and infrared detection, with ultrasound and infrared being less common; • Once the need for added illumination is detected by the traffic sensors, the system should ensure that the usual requirements for the relevant road lighting class are met. 23

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems Source: www. mavensystems. com 24

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems Source: www. mavensystems. com 24

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems • The Dutch Department of Public Transportation

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems • The Dutch Department of Public Transportation conducted tests to reduce the level of road illumination during low traffic periods and good weather conditions by implementing a dynamic adaptive system; • They concluded that a dynamic public lighting system can be applied, with reductions in illumination up to 50%, reaching energy savings in the order of 30% to 40% and increasing the lifetime of the lamps; • A great qualitative leap can be made in the area of public lighting, with the implementation of adaptive control remote management and monitoring systems, avoiding, for example, the costs associated with nightly human patrol to identify faulty lamps and other maintenance problems. 25

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems • An monitoring and remote management system

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems • An monitoring and remote management system allows lighting networks to react to external parameters such as: • Traffic density; • Natural light level available; • Accidents; • Atmospheric conditions; • Obstacles or other intrusions on roads (animals). • This way the lighting system can be adapted to the real needs, making it energy efficient, without reducing safety; • It is possible with these systems to monitor the "age" and the current state of the lamps, locating any potential failures. 26

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems The usual architecture of the remote monitoring

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems The usual architecture of the remote monitoring and management system consists of the following: • Luminaire Controller (LC) => controls the ballast/driver of the light source and all the sensors in the luminaire, providing a dynamic lighting system; • Segment Controller (SC) => Communication channel of luminaires; • Central Management System (CMS) => Controls the various segments of the lighting system, managing the information transmitted by the controllers (luminaire and segment). Internet Utility Municipality SC Source: EDP, Portuguese Utility 27

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems • These systems are not yet massively

Intelligent controls Monitoring and remote management systems • These systems are not yet massively adopted in because of the lack of standardization that makes these solutions difficult to be integrated into standard management platforms. These systems are mostly proprietary solutions from manufacturers; • Possibilities: • • • Remote control ON/OFF; Integration of automatic control ON/OFF based on illumination level, astronomical calculations; Integration of dimming based on traffic flow sensors or computer vision; Full system awareness: real-time feedback of any changes and detailed electrical parameters for each luminaire (k. W, k. VA, PF, etc); Reporting and maintenance: monitor lamp health and individual point of light failures. Possibility for defining maintenance schedules. 28

Lighting Control (Outdoor) - Summary Characteristic Daylight harvesting Astronomical timers Dimming Monitoring and remote

Lighting Control (Outdoor) - Summary Characteristic Daylight harvesting Astronomical timers Dimming Monitoring and remote management systems ON/OFF Dimming Schedule/Programming Increase lamp lifetime Failure detection Energy savings calculation Data storage Communication with the network managing system/company Savings score Cost score Source: E-STREET (Intelligent Road and Street lighting in Europe). 29

Partner of Premium Light Pro Funded by EU Comission under Horizon 2020 EU Partner

Partner of Premium Light Pro Funded by EU Comission under Horizon 2020 EU Partner 30

Partners of Premium Light Pro Name Bernd Schäppi Country Austria Organisation Austrian Energy Agency

Partners of Premium Light Pro Name Bernd Schäppi Country Austria Organisation Austrian Energy Agency email bernd. [email protected] at Czech Republik www. energyagency. at SEVEn michal. [email protected] cz Caspar Kofod Denmark www. svn. cz Energy. Piano [email protected] dk Anibal T. De Almeida Portugal IISR - University of Coimbra [email protected] uc. pt Stewart Muir United Kingdom Energy Saving Trust Stewart. [email protected] org. uk Germany www. energysavingtrust. org. uk/ CO 2 ONLINE Boris. [email protected] 2 Online. de Michal Stasa Boris Demrovski Andrea Roscetti Italy Aniol Esquerra Spain Łukasz Rajek Poland www. co 2 online. de Politecnico Milano http: //www. energia. polimi. it/index. php Ecoserveis www. ecoserveis. net FEWE The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency andrea. [email protected] it [email protected] net l. [email protected] pl www. fewe. pl 31

Thank you very much! Contact: ************************* 32

Thank you very much! Contact: ************************* 32