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創造力 不墨守成規的運用思考 Out of Linear Thinking 類推性思考 Inferring Thinking 參考性思考 Referring Thinking 9
產生創造力的方法 Brainstorming Synetics Forcing Techniques Nominal Techniques 20
Improving Group Decisions The Delphi technique represents a systematic way of collecting and organizing the opinions of several experts into a single decision. Advantage: allows the collection of expert judgments without the great costs and logistical difficulties of bringing many experts together for a face-to-face meeting. Disadvantage: can be very time consuming. 21
Steps in the Delphi Technique Problem 1. Enlist the cooperation of experts 2. Propose the problem to experts 3. Experts record solutions, make recommendations 4. Experts’ responses are compiled and reproduced 5. Responses are shared with all others 6. Experts comment on others’ ideas and propose a solution If no consensus is reached. . . 7. Solutions are compiled 22 Solution If a consensus is reached. . . Fig. 10. 5
Improving Group Decisions 23 The Nominal Group Technique brings together a small number of individuals who systematically offer their individual solutions to a problem and share their personal reactions to others’ solutions. Advantages: can be fast; minimizes pressures for conformity Disadvantages: requires a trained group leader; can only be used for narrowly defined problems
Steps in the Nominal Group Technique 1. A small group gathers around a table and receives instructions; problem is identified. 2. Participants privately write down ideas about problem solving. 3. Each participant’s ideas are presented, one at a time, and are written on a chart until all ideas are expressed. 4. Each idea is discussed, clarified, and evaluated by group members. 5. Participants privately rank the ideas in order of their preference. 24 6. The highest-ranking idea is taken as the group’s decision.
個人對問題解決的影響 Sensation or Intuition Thinking or Feeling Judging or Perceiving Extraverts or Introverts 25