- Slides: 23
Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
Ottoman: Rise to Power n n n Seljuk Turks began to decline, the Osman began to expand. Gunpowder empire –success largely based on the mastery of the technology of firearms. Janissary were an elite military guard recruited from Christians, converted to Islam, and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to the sultan.
Ottoman: Suleiman n Suleiman I, or Suleiman the Magnificent, came to rule in 1520. He expanded Ottoman rule into Europe and the western Med. Sea. He ruled for 46 years. He codified Ottoman law keeping Islamic faith, took into account Christian inhabitants of the Empire, addressed taxes, and built more schools.
Ottoman: Sultans n n head of the empire- held absolute control hereditary – eldest son always succeeded the father. (created turmoil) private domain called a “harem, ” or “sacred place. ” Here the sultan and his wives lived. When a son became sultan, his mother became queen mother and acted as an adviser to the throne.
Ottoman n chief advisor to the sultan: grand vizier n n Led meetings Spoke for the Sultan Empire divided into districts and ruled by officials and highly trained bureaucrats Senior officials responsible for collecting taxes and supplying armies for the empire
Ottoman: Society n n The subjects were divided by occupation. ruling class, & 4 main occupational groups: peasants, artisans, merchants, and pastoral peoples. Sunni Muslims. Tolerant of non-Muslims n n Conversions Or taxes
Ottoman: Decline n n The training of officials declined local government grew more corrupt and taxes rose Wars depleted the imperial treasury. influence of Western Europe
Safavid n n Modern day Persia, concentrated on building a powerful army Ismail called himself “shah, ” or king, of the new Persian state by age 14 Religious tyrant: Shia Decimated the Sunni population
Safavid: at its Peak n n n Shah Abbas: Highest point of glory Reformed military and civilian life Equipped armies with modern artillery Punished corruption Hired only the most competent people Sought more religious toleration
Safavid: Cultural Connections n New capital at Isfahan n Beautiful arts n n n Showcase wealth Blue domes Chinese artisans Metalwork, calligraphy, glasswork, and pottery Carpets n n n Western demand Local craft to national industry Themes reflected the culture of the empire
Safavid: Decline n n n Shah Abbas followed Ottoman mistakes Incompetent leadership aided in decline By 1747 the empire fell into regional turmoil
Mughal: Geography n The Mogul Empire spread from the Hindu Kush mountains east to the Bay of Bengal; from modern-day Afghanistan south to near the southern tip of India.
Mughal: Origins n n n 8 th-16 th centuries: religious and political turmoil Babur defeated the sultan of Delhi Akbar the Great n Military conqueror n n n Artillery Utilized rajput forces Liberal ruler n n n Cultural blending Governed using the talented Graduated tax
Mughal: Culture n Blending n n n Arts and Literature n n n Welcomed diverse influence Persian, Hindi, and Urdu (blend) Book illustrations Epic love stories Architecture n n Style named for Akbar Massive, graceful structures
Mughal: Shah Jahan n n Shah Jahan He expanded the boundaries of the Mogul Empire Taj Mahal – a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Mumatz Mahal. This is the finest piece of Mogul architecture. It combines Persian, Ottoman, Indian, and Islamic styles. .
Mughal: Aurangzeb n n n He was a devout Muslim and a man of high principle. He tried to eliminate social evils in India: suttee (a Hindu practice of cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre), levying illegal taxes, gambling, and drinking. Made Hindu to convert to Islam –led to social unrest that made India open to attack from abroad.
Mughal n n The British helped the decline of the Mogul Empire in India. British East India Co. Controlled trade and taxed lands surrounding the city of Calcutta. The Indians practiced guerilla warfare against the British. The British moved inland. Trade brought money to the British. The British were in India to stay.