- Slides: 14
OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND INDIA
Ottoman Empire Today
Ottoman’s begin to decline � � Ottoman Empire Loses Power- The declining empire had difficulties trying to fit in to the modern world. The Ottomans tried to make change, but can’t. Reforms Fail- Suleiman I was the last great Ottoman sultan. Following him there was: quarreling, corruption, and theft, Nationalist (very patriotic people) feelings began to stir, the Ottomans’ weakness was apparent to European powers. Europeans Grab Territory. Geopolitics-an interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products. Ottomans controlled access to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic sea routes. This was attractive for other European countries
War in the Crimea � Russia and the Crimean War –Russians wanted to gain land on the Black Sea. The Crimean War as it was called, was Britain and France trying to prevent the Russians from gaining control of additional Ottoman lands. The Ottomans, British and French defeated the Russians. This war revealed the Ottoman’s military weaknesses. Still the Ottomans lost control of lots of land.
Egypt � Egypt Tries Reform –Muhammad Ali became Egypt’s new leader. He began a series of reforms in the military and in the economy. Ali’s grandson Isma’il continued his reforms. Isma’il supported the construction of the Suez Canal. This was a man-made waterway that cut through the Isthmus of Suez. � Connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. It was completed in 1869. Egypt could not pay back the European bankers for. The British wanted to oversee the financial control of the canal, and in 1882 the British occupied Egypt. The British controlled the Canal.
India � � As the Mughal Empire declined, Britain seized Indian territory until it controlled the hole subcontinent. British economic interest in India began in the 1600 s, because they had a trading post in Bombay.
India � � By 1707 the Mughal Dynasty that had kept European traders under control was beginning to collapse. Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, began breaking away from Mughal control. The East India company in 1757, led by Robert Clive took advantage of the growing weakness by the Mughals winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey. As a result from this time on the British East India Company held almost the entire Indian subcontinent.
East India Company � � The East India company had its own armies led by British officers and staffed by “Sepoys, ” or Indian Soldiers. The British considered India to be their brightest “Jewel in their crown. ” British law forced India to supply raw materials such as tin, Indigo (a dye), coffee and cotton. India became more valuable when the East India Company built a railroad network throughout India, transporting raw products.
Positives � Jot down only 3 of the 4. you choose � � India enjoyed some gains from British rule. The railroad system was the third largest in the world helping make the Indian economy more modern. The British also established a modern road network, telephones, telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals enabling India to modernize. Sanitation and public health improved, schools, and colleges were founded, which increased literacy.
Negatives � � � By the mid 1800’s, many Indians began to feel growing resentment against the British. Many believed that in addition to controlling their land the British where trying to convert them to Christianity. The Indian people also resented the constant racism that British expressed toward them.
Indians rebel � � � By the mid 1800’s, many Indians began to feel growing resentment against the British. Many believed that in addition to controlling their land the British where trying to convert them to Christianity. The Indian people also resented the constant racism that British expressed toward them.
Sepoy Mutiny � � � In 1887 gossip spread among the Indian soldiers that the cartridges of their new Enfield Rifles where sealed with beef and pork fat. This posed a problem for both the Hindu soldiers who considered cows scared and Muslims who do not eat pork were outraged. 85 -90% of the Sepoys refused the new cartridges, those who disobyed where jailed. On May 10, 1857, the Sepoy’s rebelled. The uprising spread over much of Northern India, fierce fighting took place taking the East India Company over a year to reign in control.