Organization of Agrometeorological observations forecasts and farmers service

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Organization of Agrometeorological observations, forecasts and farmers service in Bulgaria Valentin Kazandjiev National Institute

Organization of Agrometeorological observations, forecasts and farmers service in Bulgaria Valentin Kazandjiev National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Hydro-meteorological service in Bulgaria is the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) and

Hydro-meteorological service in Bulgaria is the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) and this is his official name. NIMH was established in February 1890. Primary mission of NIMH is to provide specific information to different organisations and users in Bulgaria. The mission of NIMH involves - both days to day operations, theoretical and applied research activities. Meteorological, Agrometeorological and Hydrological observations, data collecting and telecommunication, monitoring of chemical components in ground water and air quality, meteorological, agrometeorological and hydrological forecasts, assistance to special sectors. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Core elements of the NIMH are the Central Body in Sofia and 4 Regional

Core elements of the NIMH are the Central Body in Sofia and 4 Regional Branches in Kjustendil, Pleven, Plovdiv and Varna. Their structural units are observatories and observing stations. The territory of the country is covered by 35 observatories and unifying more than 2000 observing stations. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Each of the Regional Centres organises the activity of its part of the National

Each of the Regional Centres organises the activity of its part of the National observing system, i. e. they collect the data from the observing stations via the observatories and exchange data with the Communication centre in Sofia. A) Meteorological network: 31 synoptic stations including 5 stations on mountain peaks; 1 upper-air sounding station; 132 climatic stations; 373 rainfall stations; B) Agrometeorological network: 33 agrometeorological; 4 forest stations; 109 phenological points. C) Hydrological network: 236 hydrological stations; 595 wells and springs stations for ground water; 112 stations for suspended sediment samplings, organic matter content determination as well as the specific weight of sediments; 61 stations for grain-size determination D) Air and water pollution network: 1 background pollution station in Rogen; 14 sampling posts for air-pollution monitoring; 224 sampling posts for surface water pollution monitoring; 260 sampling posts for under-ground water pollution monitoring; 21 acid-rain measurement posts; 93 sampling posts for air and water radioactivity. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Agrometeorological network: • 33 agrometeorological; • 4 forest stations; • 109 phenological posts. COST/WMO

Agrometeorological network: • 33 agrometeorological; • 4 forest stations; • 109 phenological posts. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

 • • • The Agrometeorological network does not expand. Furthermore, some of the

• • • The Agrometeorological network does not expand. Furthermore, some of the agrometeorological and phenological stations are closed dawn, because of missing funds. After the 1991 changes in the Institute structure, the agrometeorological service has the following design: 1. Central agrometeorological service by the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology offered to the central government departments and specially to the Ministry of Agriculture. 2. Agrometeorological services offered by the four branches of the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology branch Pleven - in Northeast part of Bulgaria, branch Varna - the eastern part of the country, branch Plovdiv - in the southern part of Central Bulgaria and the Kjustendil branch which is in the south Western Part of the country. 3. Regional agrometeorological services by the 23 hydrometeorological observatories of regional administrative bodies, agricultural observations and farmers. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

4. Types of services -Daily agrometeorological evaluations of agricultural crop growth and opportunities for

4. Types of services -Daily agrometeorological evaluations of agricultural crop growth and opportunities for work in the field. -Weekly agrometeorological evaluation of the conditions for agricultural crop growth as well as of the conditions for carrying out hydrological activities. It is distributed by National radio broadcaster. -Monthly bulletin about the meteorological conditions and the phenological stages of agrometeorological analysis of agrometeorological conditions by the means of tables, maps and graphics. They are published by the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology and are then distributed among the subscribers. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

To obtain necessary data more than 100 years we accomplish agrometeorological observations. They are

To obtain necessary data more than 100 years we accomplish agrometeorological observations. They are completeded in two subsystems – on the ground and remote sensed. Second one, is comparatively new but very advanced. Information received by remote sensing enter widely for agriculture services. To this stage exist some difficulties connected with receiving of this kind information which are with technical and financial origin, that is why we continue to use ground network for agrometeorological observations. This network will be developed and supported giving into account peculiarities remote sensing measurements.

Main types agrometeorological measurement and observations from the ground subsystem and to which is

Main types agrometeorological measurement and observations from the ground subsystem and to which is based agrometeorological service is this which is collected by the standard agrometeorological program. This program include – mesurements of parameters of crops and estimation state of the crops (height of the plants, density of the canopy, biomass per unit area, elements of crops productivity, main phenological stages of development, level of weeds infestation, level of damages from unfavorable meteorological phenomena, damages from pests and diseases etc. ), observation of agrotechnological works (ploughing, fertilizing, cultivations, soils feeding, hebicides treatmetnt, treatment against pests and diseases, irrigation and harvest), measurement of parametres of the ground surface (hight and density of snow cover, soil moisture down to 2 m depth – in the first meter by 10 cm layers and in the second meter by 20 cm layers, soil temperature on 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 cm)

 • Statistical models for determining crop yields from climate variables generally relate historic

• Statistical models for determining crop yields from climate variables generally relate historic estimates of yield with several climate variables such as precipitation, temperature, soil moisture. Multiple linear regression equations describing the relationship between monthly values of air temperature and precipitation on the one hand grain yield of maize and winter wheat on the other hand for every experimental variety station across the country were established. An attempt to derive statistical models for regional assessment of maize and winter wheat productivity was done. For example: The statistic models presented in this chapter were derived using tcriterion of Student and F-ratio of Fisher assuming 5% probability level. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Prognosis of the expected flowering date of winter wheat at the operative agrometeorologic al

Prognosis of the expected flowering date of winter wheat at the operative agrometeorologic al stations in 1995 using CERES-Wheat model. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Prognosis of the expected maturity date winter wheat across the country in 2003 using

Prognosis of the expected maturity date winter wheat across the country in 2003 using CERESWheat model. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Prognosis (toward 30. 04. 2003) of expected grain yields (in kg/dka) of winter wheat

Prognosis (toward 30. 04. 2003) of expected grain yields (in kg/dka) of winter wheat according with WOFOST calculations COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Soil water content is an important limit in many models presently used in agricultural

Soil water content is an important limit in many models presently used in agricultural and forest meteorology. Soil moisture plays an important role not only in plant's growth, developments and yields, but also in farm operations such as planting, cultivation, harvesting and irrigation. The required accuracy and frequency of soil moisture measurements depend on the intended use of these data. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

DISTRIBUTION OF FORECASTS • Monthly agrometeorological forecasts of the conditions for the main agricultural

DISTRIBUTION OF FORECASTS • Monthly agrometeorological forecasts of the conditions for the main agricultural crop growth and the conditions for carrying out agro technical events. They are distributed by the National TV and broadcast on the Bulgarian National Radio. • They are published in a few central daily and week newspapers. The agrometeorological and meteorological information is used by the Ministry of Agriculture for the following purposes: giving arguments for planning, organising and carrying out the basic technological activities: sowing, applying chemical remedies to fight diseases and pests, use of herbicides during the different periods and quantity of it’s use and In accordance to the standards for irrigation, gathering transporting and storing the protection evaluation of yields and calculation of the country's grain-folder balance, import and export of grain, folder and other agricultural production. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to asses the economic effectiveness of the used agrometeorological data during the last years. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

World Agro. Meteorological Information Service Home Objectives Background Contact Links Disclaimer Regions Africa Asia

World Agro. Meteorological Information Service Home Objectives Background Contact Links Disclaimer Regions Africa Asia South America N & Central America S. W. Pacific Europe Bulgaria Monthly Agrometeorlogical Conditions Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) Bulgarian Bulletin Web Page (In English) (Click on Agrometeorological conditions) The Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences produces a monthly agrometeorological bulletin which provides information on the monthly state of the soils and water reserves, State of agricultural crops, and the course of fieldwork. The NIMH also produces a monthly weather bulletin in Bulgarian only. Training Modules © 2004 W M O - O M M - Geneva, Switzerland. Disclaimer. COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers Distribution of agrometeorological forecast by the Internet on a National level – Web page of NIMH and International level Web page of WAMIS Project

Thank you for your attention COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers

Thank you for your attention COST/WMO Meeting - Weather, Climate and Farmers