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ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION OF SOCIETIES 600 BCE – 600 CE
SHOW DOWN: CHINA V. ROME Han China Roman Empire
ASIA: FORMATION OF CHINA AND INDIA PERIOD 2: 600 BCE -- 600 CE.
IN A QUICK GLANCE…. . • New Era because civilizations have reached a new level of sophistication and size. How is religion changing and being used to keep us in power? What are we going to do to keep our growing empires under control and stay in power? How do make $$ and get the goods that we want?
APWH PERIOD 2: ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES q. Development and Codification of ________ and ________ Traditions q. Development of ______ and ________. q. Emergence of Interregional _______ of _______ and Exchange.
APWH PERIOD 2: ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES q. Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions q. Development of States and Empires. q. Emergence of Interregional Networks of Communication and Exchange.
LET’S FOCUS ON CHINA: IF CHINA IS TO BECOME ONE OF THE STRONGEST EMPIRES FOR THE NEXT 2, 000 YEARS, IT MUST HAVE SET UP EFFECTIVE SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES. In this unit of study, we will ask the following questions: 1. How does China form itself into a world power? 2. Political Structures of China: How does China set up its government and consolidate power? 3. Religion and Culture: How are religion and culture intensifying? How are religion and culture interconnected with political power? 4. How are the China interacting other major empires? 5. Why do we care about this?
WHAT ABOUT INDIA? WHAT’S UP WITH COWS? 1. How did Hinduism and Buddhism begin in India? 2. How did it shape culture and society? 3. How did Hinduism solidify social and economic classes 4. What do Hindus and Buddhists believe? 5. Was India able to stand up to its powerful neighbors? 6. How did India set up its government and how did it compare to China? 7. Why do we care about this?
DEVELOPMENT AND CODIFICATION OF RELIGION • What religions or ethical belief systems solidify and form China and Asia during this time? • What are the systems and core beliefs? • Is government based on religion? • Does the religion endure? • How does it spread or change? 2. 1
CONFUCIANISM, LEGALISM, AND DAOISM SHAPE CHINESE SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT. Formed during period of chaos in 6 th century BCE: (500 s BCE) • Kong Fuzi’s (Confucius) philosophizes about and ideal society and how rulers should rule • Secular understanding of how to create an ideal society • Creates harmony, balance, unity due to clear ideas of proper behavior • Will serve as the basis for legitimacy in ruling
CONFUCIAN PRINCIPLES AND VALUES • 5 Relationships (Upper v. lower person) • Each person has duties and obligations • Virtue demanded of leaders (upper person) • Duty and Obligation to follow one’s role and proper behavior • Obedience • Filial Piety • Wisdom and knowledge (education) • Harmony and Balance
OUTCOMES OF CONFUCIAN BELIEFS: • A hierarchical society, rigid in structure • Social unity, order • Social inequality increases • Patriarchy • Justification for rule (legitimacy)
LEGALISM: SHAPED BY GOVT AND PHILOSOPHICAL LEADERS SAME TIME PERIOD (500 S BCE) Guiding philosophy of Qin Dynasty, Views humans as greedy, selfish, • Harsh laws and punishments necessary to keep order • People should obey without question • Total power of the emperor • Education is not necessary • Virtue and Kindness are weaknesses Shi Huangdi If you establish what people delight in, they will suffer from what they dislike, but if you establish what they dislike, they will be happy in what they enjoy.
ETHICAL, LEGAL, OR RELIGIOUS CODES SHAPING CHINA Read through the yellow packet for the sections titled, Confucianism (Legalism is included) Daoism complete pages 15 -16 in WB Daoism Resource: https: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/daoism/ 2. 1
TWO PHILOSOPHIES…. WHICH WILL ORGANIZE CHINA LONG-TERM? Confucianism Legalism • Views humans as greedy and selfinterested • Govt’s job is to be strong and tough • Strict laws and harsh punishments keep society in check • Education is harmful to order • Govt is ultimate authority • Views humans as good • Leadership is by example and virtue • People will obey laws if they are educated and taught respect • Ideals and virtues are the highest authority
DAOISM/ TAOISM SPIRITUAL ALTERNATIVE • Belief in universal life-force, “The Way” • Yin/Yang: reflect balance and harmony in nature and self • Nature highly valued • Education and Achievement cannot be self-driven • Magic and mystery emphasized Daoism Resource: https: //plato. stanford. edu/entries/daoism/
A perfect thesis shows argumentation and advanced understanding of the topic • Argumentation: a specific line of logic that goes beyond basic facts and argues for a certain interpretation of the facts. • A strong thesis statement tells the reader your basic line of reasoning without giving specific pieces of evidence. • The reader should have a road map of your argument but has not listened to the “whole story” of your trip • Includes all key terms of the prompt • Uses vocab terms where appropriate https: //padlet. com/hubert 0807/mulan
GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION OF CHINESE EMPIRES: QIN, HAN DYNASTIES • Shang • Zhou (Joe) Birth of new religious, philosophical and ethical belief systems • Warring states period of chaos • Qin (Chin). About 20 years 100 BCE • Han 200 BCE – 200 CE 2. 2
GROWTH AND ORGANIZATION OF CHINESE EMPIRES: QIN, HAN DYNASTIES • Shang For each dynasty, ask, “What do they contribute to the formation of Classical China? ” Each one will contribute a key feature that is then borrowed and tweaked or reformed. • Zhou (Joe) • Warring states period of chaos • Qin (Chin). About 20 years 100 BCE • Han 200 BCE – 200 CE 2. 2
LET’S LOOK AT A COUPLE OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS: 2. Legitimacy: Political authority is confirmed through consent or through compliance with laws and procedures. Talk to your aisle partner 1. Mandate of Heaven : What is a Mandate? And what is Heaven? 3 . If legitimacy is granted through the Mandate of Heaven, then how does a ruler get “the Mandate”, and how does a ruler lose the mandate?
JOHN GREEN: MANDATE OF HEAVEN EXPLAINED MANDATE OF HEAVEN • Don’t worry about the overall order of the dynasties or names of leaders for now, watch for the overall idea of how the mandate of heaven works, how people claim power and how rulers lose their power.
REVIEW… MANDATE OF HEAVEN 1) How does one “receive” the mandate of heaven? 2) How does a dynasty lose the mandate? 3) How does the mandate of heaven create legitimacy for its rulers? What is the benefit of this system?
POLITICAL SYSTEMS: FEUDALISM…… WHO WANTS TO BE A PEASANT? • Feudalism is a political system in which a central ruler establishes power/ control over regional rulers who carry out govt duties for the king/ emperor. • Peasants farm or work for low wages and are largely “stuck” or unable to move. In return, they are given protection by their feudal lord and have an organized way of life. It’s a fine distinction but peasants are not considered slaves, even though they may be extremely poor and unable to move or relocate. • Feudalism is mostly political in that it allows the king/ emperor to stay in power through alliances. • This is often used if it is impossible or difficult to rule directly in vast territory. • Let’s figure out how it works.
BEFORE WE BEGIN: LET’S EXPLORE FEUDALISM Political Structures and State Building: Centralization of Power by Feudalism Another word for Noble is “Aristocrats” They form the “aristocracy” Landlords typically held small amounts of land.
DEBRIEF FEUDALISM 1) What is the danger if you are the emperor? 2) All power is based on what? 3) Who has the most power in this system? 4) Who has the least power? 5) What are the pros and cons of feudalism?
CHINESE DYNASTIES: THE RISE AND FALL Keep it Simple! Stick with your Theme and Goal: How is this Dynasty helping to Organize China’s political structures and culture? • Cultural Unity Think Big Picture Look for Patterns in the Rise and Fall ZHOU Dynasty “Joe” • Common system of spoken language • Mandate established • Banned human sacrifices • Loses mandate when China falls victim to attacks from nomads and peasant revolts.
IF THE ZHOU DETERIORATES INTO A PERIOD OF WARRING STATES, WHO IS LEADING THE WARS? (IF ITS NOT THE EMPEROR)
Text Page 44 QIN DYNASTY “CHIN” 250 BCE – 200 BCE It must be something special if China derives its name from this dynasty, right? 1. What was the biggest problem facing Shi Huangdi when he seized control of China? 2. Who did he identify as his internal enemy? (group of people) 3. Describe his leadership style. Do you think he could have achieved similar results with different tactics? 4. What building project is he given credit for starting?
Text Page 44 QIN DYNASTY “CHIN” 250 BCE – 200 BCE It must be something special if China derives its name from this dynasty, right? 1. What was the biggest problem facing Shi Huangdi when he seized control of China? (Power of regional warlords and landlords) 2. Who did he identify as his internal enemy? (group of people) 3. Describe his leadership style. Do you think he could have achieved similar results with different tactics? Legalist 4. What building project is he given credit for starting? Great Wall of China, Terra Cotta army
SHI HUANGDI: THE CHIN OF CHINA, THE TIGER! • Harsh Brutal Ruler, Legalist • China unified • Progress made quickly under strict leadership • Seizes power and land from regional warlords/ aristocrats, • Advances agriculture and silk production. • Anti-merchant • Anti-Aristocrat
LEGALISM philosophy of Qin Dynasty, Guiding Shi Huangdi • Views humans as greedy, selfish, • Harsh laws and punishments necessary to keep order • People should obey without question • Total power of the emperor If you establish what people delight in, they will suffer from what they dislike, but if you establish what they dislike, they will be happy in what they enjoy.
UNIFICATION CONTINUES. KEEP TO OUR MAIN QUESTION: HOW AND WHAT METHODS ARE BEING USED TO ORGANIZE AND BUILD THE CHINESE STATE? Qin Achievements: 1. Expansion of state to Yangzi River 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Uniform law, Legalism Push against aristocracy/ landlords/ nobles Standardized weights and measures Public works—roads, canals, new capital Beginning of the Great Wall
EXAMPLES: • Book Burning—education is not necessary. Govt tells you what is true • Travel Bans—people couldn’t travel or move around the country as they wish
HAN DYNASTY: THE GOLD STANDARD
HAN DYNASTY: SEIZES THE MANDATE How do Han Leaders Organize China? Wu Di (141 – 87 BCE) is most famous emperor
HAN SOCIETY: BASED ON CONFUCIAN VALUES Note the place of Education Note the place of merchants. “Mean” people were the people at the bottom who did undesirable and unclean jobs. Why would merchants and artisans receive lower status than peasants? They probably have more money? How does “religion” or Confucianism solidify political power?
HAN CONTRIBUTIONS: • Confucianism is state philosophy. All of govt. and society organized around these ideals. • Expansion to Korea and Vietnam • Strengthened Bureaucracy (govt agencies and their employees) • Civil Service Exams– meritocracy… those with merit gain employment Anyone can take the exam. Those with high scores receive govt. appointments. Tests are based on Confucian ideal, including the Analects. Of course, privilege does come from connections. People from families connected to the govt. have a better chance of passing. • Science • Law • Art (landscapes, detailed bronze carvings, luxury items • Silk and Porcelain • Paper • Ethnically, Chinese identify as “Han” and have identified as such since the Han dynasty.
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Agrarian society with the production of luxury goods/ items that were highly desired by others, traded along the Silk Road. Govt directed economy. Govt organizes storage and distribution of grain in graineries. China has all the cash and knowledge it needs to purchase and make whatever it wants. • Corvee labor = labor due to the govt. (like a tax) used to complete govt work projects. Most of the time during agricultural off-season. (Each family must send a son to work for three months on a government project)
CULTURE: FAMILY AND GENDER ROLES • Women in Confucian Societies • Very patriarchal • Power within household only, but could hold informal power in the home AND in the PALACE! • Families are Valued to the Highest Degree • Loyalty to family, obedience to parents a virtue • Those who go against families have no place in society, banished, which could mean death Filial Piety- Respect for elders, especially family elders. Loyalty, obedience
CULTURE: LARGEST UNIFIED CULTURE IN THE WORLD • • • Standardized Chinese Script Focus on Arts and Literary Works for elites Poetry Confucianism + Daosim Rituals for the Confucian elite Harmony and Balance Hierarchy Daoism Deeply entrenched patriarchal society Spiritual alternative to Confucianism Founded by Laozi, Continued connection to ancestor worship • Focus on harmony with “The Way”, the life force Art, artisan work, = very detailed and intricate. • Retreat from real world, politics, wealth • Humility, frugality
FALL OF THE HAN INTERNAL WEAKNESS + OUTSIDE INVASION = DOOM Internal • Plague!/ disease • Floods from deforestation along the rivers and environmental damage from earthquakes / tsunami • Increasing power of regional lords • Banditry • Palace Intrigue, weak emperors External • Xiongnu and other nomadic groups They “move on swift horses and in their breasts beat the hearts of beasts. They shift from place to place like a flock of birds. Thus it is difficult to corner them and bring them under control. ”
CONFUCIANISM OR DAOISM? PG. 50 • • “I take no action and the people are reformed…. , I do nothing and people become rich. “Keep your mouth closed, guard your senses. ” “Personal cultivation begins with poetry, is made firm with rules of decorum” “When it is left to follow its natural feelings, human nature will do good…”
ORGANIZATION AND REORGANIZATION: HOW IS INDIA SIMILAR OR DIFFERENT THAN CHINA? • We know that China uses centralized govt, complex systems, Confucian ideals, to unify both people and state. • What does India do?
THE ORGANIZATION OF INDIA Religion • Polythesitic • Hinduism • Buddhsim Government • Centralization v. regional rule • Two major dynasties: Mauryan and Gupta • Use and development of Caste System • Laws of Ashoka Trade/ Connections • Providers of cotton, spices • Trade connects both major regions
Khyber Pass—India / Pakistan HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION Find: Indus River, Ganges River, Himalayas, Hindu Kush Mountains, Mt. Everest Great Strategic Location between China and the Mediterranean World • Not as isolated as China. • Mountains are passable, and invasions through these passages leave northern India vulnerable to Aryans, Alexander the Great of Greece. • Climate affected by monsoon winds and rain – a predictable pattern of winds and rain that bring torrential rain for a few months during the year.
TWO MAJOR DYNASTIES: MAURYAN AND GUPTA: WHICH DYNASTY CONTROLLED MORE TERRITORY? Mauryan Dynasty Gupta Dynasty
2. 1 How does the development and codification impact the development of India? How does it organize society and government?
Hinduism: The Beginning Vedic and Epic Ages 1500 -600 BCE 1. Aryan language - Sanskrit 2. Vedas (knowledge) - Mesh of poems and stories that connect Indian/Aryan culture 3. Varnas (classes) divide native Indians and Aryans bring tight-knit social/political norms that weave natives and Aryans together.
HINDUISM: POLYTHEISTIC RELIGION OF INDIA • Introduced By Aryans • God, “Brahma”, is multifaceted Creature who manifests himself in different incarnations. • Souls are reborn until they become one with Brahma. That is the goal of Hindus, to return to Brahma • Personal devotion to regional god or god chosen by family is intense and emotional.
• • No need to memorize all of the castes by name, but can you identify the Hindu castes as such? Caste system is rigid and defined by birth • Only escape is in next life cycle. • Creates order, unity, hierarchy. • There is no questioning THIS life.
Religion in India More than politics or empires - Religion is India! Hindu concept of Dharma is the law. Right and wrong. Karma is the accumulation of the consequences of Dharma--move up the caste ladder - don’t follow dharma = move down Rebirth shows what you did in previous life Fluid evolving religion over time
HINDUISM: CONTINUITY OVER TIME • Personal devotion • Flexible • Culturally pervasive
• Topics for modern Indian culture: • • Bindi Why cows/ Monkeys are sacred? Modern day issues with this • Hindu marriage customs v. American weddings • Math contributions of India
Religion in India More than politics or empires - Religion is India! Buddhism THE BUDDHA! Siddhartha Gautama 500 BCE (Same time period as emergence of Confucianism and Legalism 4 Noble Truths 1 - All life is suffering 2 - suffering is caused by desires 3 - free yourself 4 - follow Eightfold Path Goal - Path leads to Nirvana - divine essence may take several lifetimes No caste system! No rituals
• Promoted in India under Ashoka, forced out by Gupta Hindu rulers who want the hierarchy and order of Hinduism • Buddhism spreads to China, Koriea, and SE Asia
Arts and Sciences in India Art - world influence - human and animal basis. Medicine - vaccinations, sterilizations no dissections hampered understanding Nalanda - One of world’s first universities for learning
2. 2 New forms of govt Mauryan Empire: How does it organize India? Chandragupta - solider who unites India Style - let’s call it military dictatorship - AUTOCRATIC Impact - 1 st great Wealthy India Empire TRADE!!! - cotton and spices, everything nices! Middle East and Roman Empire desires! $$ allows for great military might! Ashoka: grandson of Chandragupta. Converts to Buddhism and non-violence. Buddhism supported! Non-violence leads to being conquered Invaders from NW destroy Mauryans
2. 2 New forms of govt ASHOKA: WARRIOR TO PACIFIST Ashoka converts to Buddhism, becoming therefore pacifist Legal code based on Buddhist principles used to organize India (or tries) Temporary! Not permanent See workbook for more content on Ashoka
Guptan Empire - 220 CE Decentralized local control – More city-state like Impact Female rights on decline! - Guptas = Hinduism dominates -caste system expands - subcastes -Math - pi, zero, decimal system!
Economy and Society Comparison…. . India - emotional, imaginative China - restraint, practicality Similar - Focus on family and collective good, NOT of individual - Anti-West belief set? Indian Economy -World #1 in trade - Steel, cotton, spices
India Hinduism/Buddhism Caste System Less Isolated Traders Important More regional/local Big discoveries Hugely important! Male Dominant Compare/Contrast Religion Social Structure Both created Inequality! Isolation/Trade Bureaucracy/Gov’t Math/Science Agriculture Family China Buddhism Confucian Order More Isolated Trade Important, traders NOT Centralized More practical use in Hugely important! Male Dominant