- Slides: 28
Organic Molecules AKA Macromolecules
Organic Molecules • Organic Molecule= A molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen; it may also have O, N. • Formed by biotic factors
Carbon • Has four electrons in outer shell, therefore make up to four covalent bonds with four other atoms. • It can also bond itself to form both chains and rings. Carbon chains make up the skeleton or “backbone” of organic molecules.
Macromolecules • Giant moleculesmade from thousands of smaller molecules. • The smaller unit = monomers, • Many monomers joined together = polymers.
Formation and Breakdown of Polymers Condensation synthesis: when a water molecule is removed in order to form a bond between two monomers. (an –OH group is removed from one molecule and a hydrogen (H) is removed from the other. ) • Usually endergonic Hydrolysis: The means by which polymers are broken down. A water molecule is added to break the bond between monomers. • Usually exergonic
The 4 Types of Macromolecules
Macromolecule (Polymer) Monomers Function(s) for cells Examples
Indicator Organic Molecule Evidence of positive test Food items that tested positive
Carbohydrates Functions: Energy source for cells & support and rigidity. Monomer ü Monosacharrides simple sugar, used directly by cell for energy (Glucose & Fructose) Polymers: ü Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides linked together. - Glucose + Fructose Sucrose + H 2 O ü Polysacharrides
Polysaccharides • Many monosaccharides linked together. • Use in cells: – short term energy storage – Support / rigidity • Ex: Starch: energy storage in plants Glycogen: energy storage in animals Cellulose: support in plants (cell walls, wood) Chiten: support in animals (exoskeletons, stitches)
Polysaccharides are made from many monosaccharides
Macromolecule (Polymer) Monomers Function in cells Example Disaccharides, Polysaccharides Monosacharride, Energy use, short term energy storage, support and rigidity Glucose (M), Fructose (M), sucrose(D) Starch(P), chiten(P), cellulose(P)
Indicator demo Fill out the graphic organizer after observing the carbohydrate demonstration 1) Why didn’t sugar water test positive for sugars?
Lipids Function: Long term energy storage, protection, communication, insulation Monomers: (2 different types) - Glycerol - 3 Fatty acids
2 Types of Fatty Acids Saturated: If each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid has single covalent bonds. - Results in straight chains(Solid at room temp. ) - Animal fats Unsaturated: If there is at least one carbon double covalent bond in a fatty acid. - Results in wavy chains(Liquid at room temp. ) - Plant fat
Other Lipids • Waxes: Used by cells for protection (from what? ) • Steroids: Cell to cell communication (what to say? )
Indicator demo Fill out the graphic organizer after observing the results to the Lipid demonstration 2) Using the concepts of polarity (and your water demo), explain why the lipids made a translucent spot on the brown paper towel, while the water did not.
Proteins Functions: • Transport (hemoglobin in blood O 2 ) • Defense (antibodies) • Regulation (enzymes = speed up chemical reactions) • Physical Variety (eye color, hair texture, skin pigment) • Muscle contraction
Monomers of Proteins Amino Acids: Many bonded together as a chain - Millions of different proteins in nature. How many different amino acids to make them?
Amino Acids Contd • 20 different Amino Acids use to make all of life’s proteins. • How can there be so many different proteins when there are only 20 different amino acids? • Amino acids are connected by peptide bonds (protein aka polypeptide)
Indicator demo Fill out the graphic organizer after observing the results to the protein demonstration
Nucleic Acids Function: Complex macromolecule that stores information in the form of a code for building all of a cells different proteins. Monomers: • Nucleotides consist of three parts: • a 5 -carbon sugar • a phosphate group • a nitrogenous base
Nucleic Acids: Examples DNA: The genetic information for all cells proteins. - Ability to replicate itself (information can be inherited)
Nucleic Acids Examples • RNA • ATP
Indicator demo 3) Why is there not a test for nucleic acids in food items?