- Slides: 16
Organic Compounds • Organic compounds must have carbon and hydrogen. Some examples of organic compounds includes carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
Inorganic Compounds • Inorganic compounds have either one or none of carbon and hydrogen. Water is inorganic as it only has hydrogen and carbon dioxide is also inorganic. H 2 O CO 2
Examples • Identify if the compound is inorganic or organic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Octane C 8 H 18 Starch (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) Steel Fe Butane C 4 H 10 Baking Soda Na. HCO 3 Olive Oil C 18 H 34 O 2
Carbohydrates H HO CH 2 OH O H OH H H Carbohydrates: Energy molecules Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen. OH H OH
Carbohydrates • Building block molecules = monosaccharides sugar - sugar sugar sugar
Carbohydrates • Function: – quick energy (short term) – energy storage – structure • cell wall in plants glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose • Examples – sugars – starches – cellulose (cell wall) starch
Sugars = building blocks • Names for sugars usually end in -ose – glucose – fructose – sucrose – maltose H HO CH 2 OH O H OH H H OH glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose H OH fructose maltose
Building carbohydrates • Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | glucose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two 2 sugars = disaccharide | maltose
Building carbohydrates • Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | glucose | fructose How sweet it is! 2 sugars = disaccharide | sucrose (table sugar)
BIG carbohydrates • Polysaccharides – large carbohydrates • starch – energy storage in plants » potatoes • glycogen poly = many – energy storage in animals » in liver & muscles • cellulose – structure in plants » cell walls
Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) energy storage glycogen (animal) polysaccharide
Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest cellulose hard to digest
Cellulose • Cell walls in plants – herbivores can digest cellulose well – most carnivores cannot digest cellulose • that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients • cellulose = roughage – stays undigested – keeps material moving in your intestines
Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
Helpful bacteria • How can cows digest cellulose so well? – BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals Eeeew… Chewing cud?