Optogenetics the basic concept Express a lightactivated ion

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Optogenetics – the basic concept • Express a light-activated ion channel (isolated from bacteria)

Optogenetics – the basic concept • Express a light-activated ion channel (isolated from bacteria) in a specific sub-population of neurons • Illuminate neurons to modulate activity – Modulation depends on type of channel • Record output (e-phys, f. MRI, behavioral, etc. )

PNAS | December 23, 2014 | vol. 111 | no. 51 | 18387– 18392

PNAS | December 23, 2014 | vol. 111 | no. 51 | 18387– 18392

The hypothalamo-pituitary Gn. RH system in rat

The hypothalamo-pituitary Gn. RH system in rat

. Representative 24 -h GH concentration and secretion profiles from a man (left) and

. Representative 24 -h GH concentration and secretion profiles from a man (left) and a woman (right). The Journal of Clinical Investigation 102, 153– 164; 1998

Diabetes 61, 2269– 2279. doi: 10. 2337/db 11 -1462, 2012.

Diabetes 61, 2269– 2279. doi: 10. 2337/db 11 -1462, 2012.

J. Sleep Res. (2004) 13, 251– 255

J. Sleep Res. (2004) 13, 251– 255

Schematic representation of the key pathway underlying estrogen positive feedback in the rodent. BRAIN

Schematic representation of the key pathway underlying estrogen positive feedback in the rodent. BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS 57 (2008) 277 – 287.

Regulatory mechanisms and maturational changes of Kiss 1 system during female puberty in rodents.

Regulatory mechanisms and maturational changes of Kiss 1 system during female puberty in rodents. Leonor Pinilla et al. Physiol Rev 2012; 92: 1235 -1316 © 2012 by American Physiological Society

Differential regulation and actions of ARC vs. Leonor Pinilla et al. Physiol Rev 2012;

Differential regulation and actions of ARC vs. Leonor Pinilla et al. Physiol Rev 2012; 92: 1235 -1316 © 2012 by American Physiological Society

First hypothesis and current view for the central control of the HPG axis by

First hypothesis and current view for the central control of the HPG axis by the Kiss 1 system. Leonor Pinilla et al. Physiol Rev 2012; 92: 1235 -1316 © 2012 by American Physiological Society

The GPR 54 gene as a regulator of puberty. N Engl J Med. 2003

The GPR 54 gene as a regulator of puberty. N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct 23; 349(17): 1614 -27.

Structural features of human kisspeptins, generated by cleavage form a common precursor, the prepro-kisspeptin.

Structural features of human kisspeptins, generated by cleavage form a common precursor, the prepro-kisspeptin. Manuel Tena-Sempere Hum. Reprod. Update 2006; 12: 631639 © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. [email protected] org

Individual secretion rates of insulin (solid lines) and glucagon (dashed lines), derived from deconvolution

Individual secretion rates of insulin (solid lines) and glucagon (dashed lines), derived from deconvolution analysis, in a representative nondiabetic control subject (A) and in a prediabetic individual (B) J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May; 97(5): E 791 -5.

Natural selection of human embryos: decidualizing endometrial stromal cells serve as sensors of embryo

Natural selection of human embryos: decidualizing endometrial stromal cells serve as sensors of embryo quality upon implantation. PLo. S One. 2010; 5: e 10258 ESCs trigger a strong response against impaired embryos but only upon differentiation into decidual cells. SD evolved to compensate for the high rate of chromosomal abnormalities in human embryos, allowing the mother to limit her investment in bad embryos.

Figure 1. Human embryo development in co-culture. Teklenburg G, Salker M, Molokhia M, Lavery

Figure 1. Human embryo development in co-culture. Teklenburg G, Salker M, Molokhia M, Lavery S, Trew G, et al. (2010) Natural Selection of Human Embryos: Decidualizing Endometrial Stromal Cells Serve as Sensors of Embryo Quality upon Implantation. PLo. S ONE 5(4): e 10258. doi: 10. 1371/journal. pone. 0010258 http: //journals. plos. org/plosone/article? id=info: doi/10. 1371/journal. pone. 0010258

Figure 3. Developmentally impaired human embryos inhibit the secretion of selective implantation modulators by

Figure 3. Developmentally impaired human embryos inhibit the secretion of selective implantation modulators by decidualizing ESCs. Teklenburg G, Salker M, Molokhia M, Lavery S, Trew G, et al. (2010) Natural Selection of Human Embryos: Decidualizing Endometrial Stromal Cells Serve as Sensors of Embryo Quality upon Implantation. PLo. S ONE 5(4): e 10258. doi: 10. 1371/journal. pone. 0010258 http: //journals. plos. org/plosone/article? id=info: doi/10. 1371/journal. pone. 0010258