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OPTIMIZATION OF THE POISSON OPERATOR IN CHOMBO Razvan Carbunescu Motivation 3. 4. 5. Poisson

OPTIMIZATION OF THE POISSON OPERATOR IN CHOMBO Razvan Carbunescu Motivation 3. 4. 5. Poisson Operator in CHOMBO The Poisson operator, aka the Laplacian, is a second order elliptic differential operator and defined in an n-dimensional Cartesian space by: CHOMBO provides elliptic and time-dependent modules, as well as support for standardized self-describing file formats. Chombo is architecture and operating system independent. The Poisson operator appears in the definition of the Helmholtz differential equation: The Helmholtz differential equation reduces to the Poisson equation: Box. Tools AMRElliptic EBTools AMRTime. Dependent Particle. Tools Calculations over union of rectangles Communication btw. refinement levels Multigrid solvers on discretized elliptic (poisson, resistivity etc) and parabolic equations Embedded boundary discretization Subcycling of time dependent calculations Particle dynamics For the use on parallel platforms, CHOMBO provides solely a distributed memory implementation in MPI (Message Passing Interface). Is the use of a distributed memory implementation always beneficial? Project Strategy and Goals 2. Andrew Gearhart Theoretical Background CHOMBO is a framework for implementing finite difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations on block structured adaptively refined rectangular grids. 1. Meriem Ben Salah Focus on the stencil kernel which applies the poisson operator on a two dimensional cell-centered data that is embedded in the AMRElliptic tool, a multigrid-based elliptic and parabolic equation solver for adaptive mesh hierarchies library. Start with the serial and distributed memory implementation supplied in CHOMBO for reference. Implement parallel shared memory architectures. The Poisson equation is used in the modeling of various boundary value physical problems: e. g. electric potential in electrostatics, potential flow in fluid dynamics etc. For the sake of a demonstrative exposition, we use the Poisson potential flow solve done in the incompressible Navier Stokes equations. A Poisson solve is conducted at the beginning of an incompressible flow simulation to obtain initial conditions to the evolution of the velocity and pressure. The definition of the appropriate boundary conditions, Dirichlet and Neumann, allows for the solution of the Poisson problem. Poisson Solver A numerical solution requires the discretization of the continuous Poisson’s equation, e. g. by the standard centered-difference approximation, as well as a discrete handling of the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The discrete Poisson operator, the focus of this project, is given by the following stencil: Conduct a parameter study to analyze the benefits and the drawbacks of each of the implementations in terms of computational time. Draw global conclusions on the consequences of the limitations of the parallel implementation on CHOMBO. Fig. 1 Flow Boundary Condition Initialialization Targeted Architectures Investigations and Results Existing Implementations CHOMBO’s implementation is currently tuned for distributed memory with the domain being split up into small boxes on the order of 32 squared for 2 D and 32 cubed for 3 D and each box is being assigned to a processor which runs serial Fortran 77 code. Because of the small size of the box there is not a lot of computational intensity to use a threaded shared memory implementation or to hide the cost of the transfer to the GPU. Fig. 2 Flow Evolution Start-Up After A Poisson Solve Speed up The serial, the distributed memory and the shared memory implementations of the Poisson solve have been run on the NERSC Cray XT 4 system, called Franklin, a massively parallel processing system with 9, 532 compute nodes (quad processor cores) and 38, 128 processors. The implementation on the GPU is being conducted on personal Linux boxes as well as the r 56 and 57 nodes of the Millennium cluster. The number of grid cells in the spatial partition as well as the number of grid refinements affect the computation of the discrete Poisson stencil and are the focus of these test runs. In order to have some sense of fair comparison, the number of grid cells and the number of grid refinements are kept equal through the test runs. To account for different loading of the machine architecture each test was repeated 5 times and its corresponding results averaged. Fig. 4 Speedup vs. C serial implementation Our interest While CHOMBO’s code obtains good performance for MPI on a distributed memory system our study is aimed at determining whether we can improve this speedup through the use of locality and faster access time to on-chip cores. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the runtimes of the C serial code vs the Fortran 77 serial code. Besides the growing time, it is interesting to note that despite the similar matrix storage in Fortran 77 and C (column major), the Fortran 77 code is accessed fastest when loops are ordered as n, j, i vs the C code that is indexed i, j, n. time Our current implementation on the shared memory model only uses a limited basic strip-mining technique since it maintains the abstractions of a data iterator going through all the boxes each step but a more relaxed model could help with time also being allowed to be blocked. Figure 4 depicts the speed-up of the various parallel implementations with respect to the associated serial C version, C_MPI 44 refers to running the MPI version with all 4 cores on 1 node and C_MPI 41 refers to running the MPI version with 4 cores but 1 core per node. Another interesting opportunity for speedup is running the operator on the GPU but the benefits must outweigh the cost of moving the data onto and off the GPU. Figure 5 presents the relative speedup of all the codes with respect to the fastest (Fortran) serial version. ncell Speed up ncell The previous points above raise the issue of threads and how for small boxes the lightweight threads are really important to allow for fast context switching and therefore hopefully increase performance. To allow for the use of pthreads and CUDA we implemented a C version of the operator. The particular reason for this choice of study is to allow for the creation of heterogeneous systems that would automatically adjust their code to either MPI. Pthreads or Cuda underneath to achieve the best result. Fig. 3 Fortran vs C serial implementation Conclusions and Future Work Contact information: References: Meriem Ben Salah: [1] John Kubiatowicz, 2009, “CS 252 Graduate Computer Architecture Lecture 24, Network Interface UC Berkeley ME Graduate Student, Par. Lab, meriem. ben. [email protected] edu Razvan Corneliu Carbunescu: UC Berkeley CS Graduate Student, Par. Lab, [email protected] berkeley. edu Design Memory Consistency Models” Andrew Gearhart: UC Berkeley CS Graduate Student, Par. Lab, [email protected] berkeley. edu [2] P. Colella et al. , 2009, “Chombo Software Package for AMR Applications Design Document” James Demmel: UC Berkeley Math & CS Faculty, [email protected] berkeley. edu [3]Machine images obtained from nersc. gov, krunker. com, compsource, com and bit-tech. net Phillip Colella: LBNL ANAG, [email protected] gov Brian Van Sraalen: LBNL ANAG, [email protected] lbl. gov ncell Fig. 5 Speedup vs. F serial implementation The shared memory implementation has beneficial results vs. the C serial code but more analysis is required to correctly compare to the Fortran MPI code. At the time of this presentation no results have yet completed from the GPU. It will be interesting to find a correct methodology to compare the GPU results from Millennium with the results of MPI and Shared memory implementations. Since Franklin does not provide GPUs, the GPU test runs have to be verified independently. This work will be reported later in the project document. It is obvious that the choice of the C implementation led to a loss of computational performance, and therefore a Fortran 77 shared memory implementation could be attractive. However, a POSIX threads interface to Fortran 77 is currently not available. A improvement on the shared memory implementation might exist in creating the Open. MP Fortran 77 solver code. Currently our simulations are only performed on the Cray XT 4 and the GPU. It would be interesting to conduct these studies on different machine architectures.