- Slides: 23
Operant Conditioning • A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment.
Classical v. Operant • They both use acquisition, discrimination, SR, generalization and extinction. • Classical Conditioning is automatic (respondent behavior). Dogs automatically salivate over meat, then bell- no thinking involved. • Operant Conditioning involves behavior where one can influence their environment with behaviors which have consequences (operant behavior).
Is the organism learning associations between events that it doesn’t control? Classical Conditioning Is the organism learning associations between its behavior and resulting events? Operant Conditioning
Edward Thorndike • Law of Effect: rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
B. F. Skinner
Shaping • A procedure in Operant Conditioning in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer towards a goal.
Operant Conditioning Chamber Conditioning
Reinforcer • Any event that STRENGTHENS the behavior it follows. Two Types of Reinforcement: Positive and Negative
Positive Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response.
Negative Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus.
Types of Reinforcers
Primary Reinforcer • An innately reinforcing stimulus
Conditioned (Secondary) Reinforcer • A stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Immediate v. Delayed Reinforcers
Continuous Reinforcement • Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. Quick Acquisition Quick Extinction
Partial Reinforcement • Reinforcing a response only part of the time. • The acquisition process is slower. • Greater resistance to extinction.
Fixed-ratio Schedules • A schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Example: I give cookie monster a cookie every FIVE times he sings “C is for cookie”.
Variable-ratio Schedule • A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. Example: I give Homer a donut at random times when he says “DOH!!!”
Fixed-interval Schedule • A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. Example: I give Bart a Butterfinger every ten minutes after he moons someone.
Variable-interval Schedule • A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. Pop Quizzes
Punishment • An event that DECREASES the behavior that it follows. Does punishment work?