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Operant Conditioning Module 27
Edward Thorndike • Puzzle box o See how animals learned • Theory of Instrumental Learning o Explain how individuals learn voluntary goal-directed behaviors • Law of Effect o Voluntary behavior followed by a + outcome would be repeated and voluntary behavior followed by a – outcome would not be repeated
B. F. Skinner • Behaviorist • Operant Conditioning o A particular behavior is increased or decreased in frequency based on the consequence that follows. • Skinner Box (Operant Chamber) o Studies operant behavior of animals by providing a controlled environment
Skinner Air Crib
Skinner and Pigeons
Operant conditioning • Reinforcements o Consequences that encourage a behavior to happen again o Can be – or +
Reinforcers • Primary o Fulfill a biological need o Food, water, air, shelter, sleep, pain removal • Secondary o o o Stimuli that are associated with primary reinforcers $$$$ It varies among people
Behavior Modification • Involves techniques designed to change unwanted behaviors and increase the frequency of positive behaviors • Tokens o Objects or points given o Schools, prisons, mental hospitals
Positive Reinforcement • Add a desirable stimulus after the behavior to increase the likelihood of the behavior occurring in the future • video
Negative Reinforcement • Procedure of removing an undesirable stimulus after the behavior…to increase the likelihood of the behavior happening again in the future
Negative Reinforcement • Negative does not mean “bad” or “undesirable” • NR is NOT punishment…removal of something unpleasant or an escape from an unwanted condition
Examples • Loud buzz in some cars when ignition key is turned on; driver must put on safety belt in order to eliminate irritating dinging • Grace picks up the clothes on her bedroom floor and her mother stops nagging. The removal of nagging(undesirable behavior) leads Grace to want to pick up the clothes on her bedroom floor more often. • Taking an aspirin for headache. If a person’s headache (stimulus) goes away after taking aspirin (behavior), then it is likely that the person will take the aspirin for headaches in the future.
Punishment • The addition or removal of stimuli to decrease a voluntary behavior
Positive Punishment • Adding an undesirable stimulus (punisher) to decrease the likelihood of the behavior occurring again
Positive Punishment • Jeff stays out late and has to do more chores. The addition of the chores leads to Jeff not wanting to stay out late again. • I run into a pole when texting. • Someone frowns when you tell a joke. • Receiving a ticket for speeding.
Negative Punishment • Involves removing a desirable stimulus after the behavior to decrease the likelihood of the behavior occurring in the future.
Negative Punishment • Amy uses her cell phone in class, and the teacher takes the cell phone away. • Removing the bedroom hinges after child slams it in anger. • You come in late for curfew. You lose the keys to your car for a week.
Shaping and Chaining • Methods of operant conditioning • Shaping o A desired response is created by gradually reinforcing successively closer approximations of a behavior until correct behavior is displayed • Chaining o Method for teaching a series of behaviors where each response cues the next response
Scheduling of Reinforcement • Continuous Reinforcement o Happens all the time • Intermittent Reinforcement o It doesn’t occur every time
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules • Four Types • Determine if the reinforcement is given after a fixed (set) or variable (changing) schedule. • Determine if the reinforcement is given after a ratio (number of correct behaviors) or interval (time period that has passed) schedule.
Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement • Ratio - # of responses • Fixed or Variable • Fixed ratio schedules o Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses • An employer pays workers for every 3 baskets of fruit they pick • After 9 lunch buffets you buy at Fields of Pizza, you get a free lunch buffet.
Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement • Variable ratio schedules • Reinforcement is given after a changing number of correct behaviors occur. o Slot machines o Making sales on commision
Interval Schedules of Reinforcement • Interval – time • Fixed Interval Schedules o Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed o Pay check every two weeks
Interval Schedules of Reinforcement • Variable Interval Schedules o Reinforcement occurs unpredictably since the time interval varies o Pop quizzes o fishing
Superstitious Behavior • B. F. Skinner • Partial reinforcement behavior • While there is a correlation between behavior and event…there is no causal relationship • Lucky numbers • Serena Williams o Bounces ball 5 times before first serve and two times before her second serve
Superstitious Behavior • Michael Jordan • Believed his baby blue mesh shorts brought him such good luck in college when he won the championship. He continued to wear those shorts under his Chicago Bulls uniform. In order to cover up his lucky shorts, Jordan wearing longer shorts, which inspired a change in the uniform style of the NBA.
Superstitions • 25 Most Common Superstitions
Classical vs Operant • Compare o Classical and Operant conditioning are both studied by behaviorists and share common terminology, such as acquisition, generalization, discrimination, and extinction.
Classical vs. Operant • Contrast o Classical conditioning involves involuntary responses that occur from the paring of stimuli. Operant conditioning involves voluntary spontaneous behaviors that are guided by consequences.
Classical vs. Operant Video