Open Access the St Andrews Digital Research Repository

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Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository 24 th March 2008, Arts

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository 24 th March 2008, Arts Building Jeremy Upton, Deputy Director, St Andrews University Library

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository 12 th February 2008: Harvard

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository 12 th February 2008: Harvard academics vote give the University a license to distribute all scholarly outputs at no cost via Institutional repository “There is no question that scholarly journals have historically allowed scholars to distribute their research to audiences around the world. But, the scholarly publishing system has become far more restrictive than it need be. Many publishers will not even allow scholars to use and distribute their own work. And, the cost of journals has risen to such astronomical levels that many institutions and individuals have cancelled subscriptions, further reducing the circulation of scholars’ works” Stuart M. Shieber

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository “The goal of university research

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository “The goal of university research is the creation, dissemination, and preservation of knowledge. At Harvard, where so much of our research is of global significance, we have an essential responsibility to distribute the fruits of our scholarship as widely as possible” Steven E. Hyman, Provost

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Two main themes driving desire

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Two main themes driving desire for change: • Current publication model not working (at least for the academic community) • Publicly funded research should be freely available to all, when and where they need it Open Access built around the repository concept can deliver both

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Summary: • Overview of current

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Summary: • Overview of current arrangements for academic publishing • Public research: Funding Council approach & other funding bodies • Models – Author pays – SCOAP 3 – Institutional Repository

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository • Repository as medium for

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository • Repository as medium for publication • St Andrews Digital Research Repository Copyright – Publisher licenses – SURF • Benefits for the researcher • Future

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Current arrangements • Most academic

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Current arrangements • Most academic work via commercially published journals or monographs • System well trusted, well understood • Offers academic security • High quality editing • Copy of record

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository BUT • Journal inflation consistently

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository BUT • Journal inflation consistently above RPI: expect 7% rise this year, not just sciences • No incentive for publishers to increase circulation as can guarantee income • No sign of slowing down of inflation • Not efficient, serious delays in distribution of important research findings • Does not allow researchers (and teachers) to work in the way they want to • Publishers becoming more restrictive: looking to make more money • Does not exploit possibilities of new technology • Based on academic goodwill • Academic monograph publication no longer viable

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Electronic content: the digital native

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Electronic content: the digital native • Expectation content will be freely available • Should be able to easily copy and re-use content • Available any time, any place If these not the case, fewer accesses, believed to be invisible (students and staff)

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Public research • Concept research

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Public research • Concept research which is publicly funded should be publicly available • Strong in medical sciences • Idea given weight by money being taken out of system by commercial publishers

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository “Ideas and knowledge derived from

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository “Ideas and knowledge derived from publicly-funded research must be made available and accessible for public use, interrogation and scrutiny, as widely, rapidly and effectively as practicable” – Research Councils UK, Update position statement on access to research outputs, June 2006 • Funding bodies taking responsibility more seriously, 5 of UK research councils mandate open access • Wellcome Trust Open Access fund • European Union: support for DRIVER project, 2006 report recommending open access (http: //ec. europa. eu/research/sciencesociety/pdf/scientific-publication-study_en. pdf)

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Other statements and organisations supporting

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Other statements and organisations supporting open access • International statements: Budapest Initiative • Scottish statement: OATS (Open Access Team for Scotland) http: //scurl. ac. uk/WG/OATS/declaration. htm • IRI Scotland project • Xarchiv for Physics, Pub. Med for Medicine

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Models • Author pays •

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Models • Author pays • SCOAP 3 • Repository movement

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Author pays • Author asked

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Author pays • Author asked to pay fee to publisher at point of submitting paper • Publisher agrees to make paper open access on point of publication or whole journal becomes open access • Cost of publication seen as part of research cost BUT • Not clear if costs can be charged to grants • Fees high: £ 1000 -£ 1500 per paper • Problem for authors without research funding • Not based on true cost of publishing papers

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository SCOAP 3 • Consortium to

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository SCOAP 3 • Consortium to facilitate open access publishing in High Energy physics • Pool together money spent by major research institutes • Central payment for peer review service • Open access at point of publication Realistic price for actual work done

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository movement • Based on open

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository movement • Based on open source software • Built around internationally agreed standards • Distributed model although some subject based repositories • Secure and managed environment including digital archiving • Flexible software which can meet a variety of needs

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Movement • Allows researchers to

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Movement • Allows researchers to deposit copies of research outputs • Over 75% of journal publishers allow author deposit into institutional repository • Details available from SHERPA Romeo site • Some time limited embargoes on deposit • Shared standards ease of searching by harvesting software (OAISTER) or Google • Over 790 World Wide

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository as home for digital publishing?

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository as home for digital publishing? • Rights management: yes, clear authorship and date stamped • Authoritative copy: yes, version control • Advertising: yes, harvesting, RSS feeds, new content displays • Off line editing: yes, workflows which can accommodate this process There already examples of journals being published within Repository context, potentially cheaper to produce BUT need to break bind of citation factors, judging by brand name

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Institutional Repository: St Andrews approach

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Institutional Repository: St Andrews approach 3 stages • E-theses • Peer reviewed research outputs • Other content Approach cautious to match institutional need

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository St Andrews Repository: E-Theses •

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository St Andrews Repository: E-Theses • Over 160 theses online • “My CV available to future employers” • Much easier access to thesis content • Making connections across the world

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Peer Reviewed Research Outputs •

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Peer Reviewed Research Outputs • Submission via Research Expertise Database • Into Repository workflow, checking by Library Staff • Require education about versions • Pilot with group of academics mid-April • Context of REF and citation culture

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository St Andrews Repository: Other content

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository St Andrews Repository: Other content • Non-peer reviewed papers • Work in progress • Journals • Data sets • Images • Examination papers

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository What does a Repository deliver

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository What does a Repository deliver for you the researcher? • Easier access to your ideas, easier access for you to others ideas • New connections between areas of research • Faster access leading to better quality of research • Higher citation rate • Easier informal exchange of ideas • Strong protection of moral rights whilst maximizing exposure to ideas

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository What does a Repository deliver

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository What does a Repository deliver for you the researcher? • A managed single home for your outputs: academic home page • Exposure to wider range of search engines including Google without the barriers • Additional, quality controlled metadata, vital to help surface content

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository What does a Repository deliver

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository What does a Repository deliver for you the researcher? • Higher profile for the institution • Ability to place links to theses and other research outputs on home pages with regular updates: help recruitment • Internal interdisciplinary work • Higher profile for research groups, help attract new staff • Higher profile with government: Cream of Science

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Open access and copyright •

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Open access and copyright • Encourage Researchers to retain copyright, license content to publishers • Read publishers’ contracts more carefully • SURF licence (http: //copyrighttoolbox. surf. nl/copyrighttoo lbox/download/licence_to_publish. pdf)

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Future • Steady growth use

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Future • Steady growth use of Institutional repository to distribute research: REF • New forms of publication and distribution • New forms of academic assessment: peer review online, know from other contexts who are the trusted names • New ways to use text • Support for local content in locally controlled environment • Collapse of academic monograph publishing: move to digital to distribute

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Jeremy Upton jeremy. upton@st-andrews. ac.

Open Access & the St Andrews Digital Research Repository Jeremy Upton jeremy. [email protected] ac. uk Janet Aucock [email protected] ac. uk