- Slides: 31
Old Testament: History and Structure
The Holy Bible • The word “Bible” comes from the Greek word biblia, which means “books”. The Bible is really a collection or library of many books. • These books are divided into two main parts, the Old Testament and the New Testament. • “Testament” means “covenant or agreement”. • The Old Covenant is an agreement that God made with the nation of Israel.
The Holy Bible ● It contains 73 books, 46 (39 main books plus 7 Second Canonical books removed by Protestants) in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament • More than forty writers over more than 1, 500 years. • It is one book as God inspires it. • A variety of writings, stories, tales, biographies, poems, and proverbs, but one focus the message of salvation, carried out by our Lord Jesus Christ. • We find the crimson line clear in all its books and we notice clearly how the wonderful Divine plan in the Old Testament prepared humanity for salvation and how the events and topics were symbols of the Lord and His work of expiation.
The Old Testament • The Old Testament tells the history of the people of Israel. • This history is based on their faith in the God of Israel and on their religious life as the people of God. • The authors of these books wrote about what God had done for them as a people and how they were to worship and obey God in return.
Languages of the Old Testament • The Old Testament language was Hebrew. Some of the chapters were written in Aramaic. • Scripture was translated into Aramaic which was spoken by Jews people after the exile. • Hebrew was known as the sacred language. The books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew and gradually after the exile the Scripture was written in Hebrew using the Aramaic alphabet. • The Hebrew language is written from right to left. They used to write without leaving space between the words, so it depends on the reader who knows how to read. Even if there is not enough space to finish the word on the line, the rest of it will be written in the next line.
Why do I love the Old Testament? • It is a shadow of the New Testament. The New Testament was hidden in the Old Testament. • It shows me how to live with God. What does God want from me. • The characters are awesome!
Why do I struggle with the Old Testament? Understanding the: – Structure – History of the Old Testament are Key to understanding and spiritual benefit.
Song of Songs Ecclesiastes Proverbs Psalms Job Esther Nehemiah Ezra Acts of the Apostles John Luke Mark Matthew Malachi Zechariah Haggai Zephaniah Habakkuk Nahum Micah Jonah Obadiah Amos Joel Hosea Daniel Ezekiel Lamentations Jeremiah Isaiah Revelation Jude III John II Peter James Hebrews Philemon Titus II Timothy II Thessalonians Colossians Philippians Ephesians Galatians II Corinthians Romans Writings of the Apostles II Chronicles II Kings II Samuel Ruth Judges Joshua Deuteronomy Numbers Leviticus Exodus Genesis Old Testament History The Pentateuch (Judaism: Torah) Wisdom and Poetry The Major and Minor Prophets The Gospels and Acts
The Old Testament The following chart shows the different groups of books that make up the Old Testament. Books are not placed in chronological order. Many of prophetical and wisdom books take place during periods of historical books
THE BIBLE IS NOT ONE BOOK But a library of 66 books Over a period of more than 1, 500 years Written by more than 40 men
Moses 1500 -1400 B. C. Of the 66 books, 39 were written before the birth of Jesus 30 A. D. 2000 A. D. These 39 are called the Old TESTAMENT
Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible: Pentateuch (5 books) Torah (law) Books of Moses GENESIS EXODUS LEVITICUS NUMBERS DEUTERONOMY 1500 -1400 B. C. 30 A. D. 2000 A. D.
The Pentateuch The first five books -- look back from the death of Moses -- all the way to the beginning of the world. GENESIS – Chapters 1 -11 • Creation of the world • First human family • Spread of evil • World wide flood • Division of mankind into nations and languages GENESIS – chapters 12 -50 • God chooses the FATHERS of the future nation of Israel • Four Generations – grow from 1 couple to 70 people
The Pentateuch Books 2 -5: EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS, DEUTERONOMY q Exodus: deliverance from Egypt and receiving the Covenant q Leviticus: obligations of the Covenant q Numbers: increases laws and time in desert q Deuteronomy: Moses gives meaning of Covenant
Moses Creation of world 2500 B. C. 1400 B. C. Books 6 -17 ARE BOOKS OF HISTORY WRITTEN BY VARIOUS AUTHORS q 1400 – 400 B. C. q Possession of their land, the establishment of the kingdom, the captivity and return to their land 400 B. C. 30 A. D. 2000 A. D.
Moses Creation of world 2500 B. C. 1400 B. C. 30 A. D. 2000 A. D. Historical Books (6: 17) • Joshua: conquest of the Promised land • Judges: settlement and survival in the land • 1 st & 2 nd Samuel: Israelite’s need for King and coming of Saul and David • 1 st & 2 nd Kings: history and fidelity of Kings who followed David down to the end of Jewish Monarchy in 586 BC.
Moses Creation of world 2500 B. C. 1400 B. C. 30 A. D. 2000 A. D. Historical Books (6: 17) • 1 st & 2 nd Chronicles: period from Saul to return from Exile • Ezra: Emphasizes Jewish piety and the Torah in the face of Hellenism-closes Israel’s openness to mixed marriages-race • Nehemiah: Rebuilding, Practicality, census, feast of Booths (tents)
Moses Creation of world 2500 B. C. 1400 B. C. Books 18 -22 ARE BOOKS OF POETRY AND WISDOM q Job is about man’s question about suffering q Psalms is a collection of poems put to music q Proverbs is a collection of short wise sayings q. Ecclesiastes tells how to live life in a world where all is vanity q. Song of Solomon is a poem about true romantic love 400 B. C. 30 A. D. 2000 A. D.
Moses Creation of world 2500 B. C. 1400 B. C. Books 23 -39 MAJOR AND MINOR PROHETS Throughout the history of Israel, various prophets predicted that SOMEONE from Israel will one day be a SAVIOR & KING of the world 400 B. C. 30 A. D. 2000 A. D.
Timeline of the Old Testament • (I) Primeval Period (Genesis 1 -11): Creation, Adam ~ 5500 B. C. Fall Enoch Methuselah, 969 years Flood, Noah ~ 2500 B. C. The Tower of Babel, many languages 400 years of scattering
Timeline of the Old Testament • (II) Patriarchal Period (Genesis 12 -50): Abraham~ 2000 B. C. Isaac Jacob The 12 tribes Joseph Exile (bondage) in Egypt (400 years)
Timeline of the Old Testament • (III) Exodus (Exodus: Deuteromony): Moses ~ 1500 B. C. Exodus from Egypt, Passover ~ 1446 B. C. The Law, the Tabernacle ~ 1445 B. C. Lost in the wilderness of Sinai (40 years)
Timeline of the Old Testament • (IV) Conquest of Canaan (Joshua): Joshua becomes the leader of Israel Crossing the Jordan Jericho Entering and dwelling in Canaan ~ 1406 B. C.
Timeline of the Old Testament • (V) Judges Period (Judges): Judges rule over Israel ~ 1375 B. C. for 400 years Dark era Debora, Gideon, Samson, Samuel Theocratic system
Timeline of the Old Testament • (VI) Early Monarchy, United Kingdom (1, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 1, 2 Chronicles): Samuel Start: King Saul ~ 1029 Establishment: King David ~ 1000 Start of decline: King Solomon ~ 961 -922 Building the temple ~ 959
• Timeline of the Old Testament (VII) Divided Kingdom (1, 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles): ~ 922 -722 B. C. Southern Kingdom, Judah, Jerusalem, House of David Some Kings were righteous, some were evil Isaiah (750 B. C. ), Jeremiah (627 B. C. ), Daniel, Ezekiel Northern Kingdom, Samaria, Different Kings Evil Kings, worshiped idols Elijah (875 B. C. ), Elisha (848 B. C. ), Jonah (793 B. C. ), Hosea (753 B. C. )
Timeline of the Old Testament • (VIII) Assyrian Captivity (2 Kings, 2 Chronicles): ~ 722 B. C. God’s judgement The kingdom of Assyria conquers and defeats the northern kingdom Samaria falls The Southern Kingdom is still surviving (Babylonian Captivity ~ 586 B. C. ) Prophets of this era include: Jeremiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah
Timeline of the Old Testament • (IX) Babylonian Captivity (2 Kings, 2 Chronicles): God’s judgement ~ 605 B. C. , King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquers Judah ~ 586 B. C. , Jerusalem and the temple are destroyed Israelites stay in Babylon until ~ 538 B. C. Prophets of this era include: Ester, Ezekiel, Daniel
Timeline of the Old Testament • (X) Restoration (Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi): ~ 539 B. C. , King Cyrus of Persia conquers Babylon ~ 538 B. C. , King Cyrus allows the Jews to return to Jerusalem ~ 520 -516 B. C. , the temple is rebuilt ~ 458 Ezra returns and assembles the Old Testament books, Nehemiah builds Jerusalem walls. ~430 B. C. , Malachi, the last prophecy
Timeline of the Old Testament • (XI) The years of Silence -- ~400 years No more prophecies Waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ ~ 250 B. C. , the Septuagint: first Greek translation of the Old Testament in Alexandria Now the scene is set, Now Messiah can come
Timeline of the Old Testament