Oil and Gas 101 An Overview of Oil

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Oil and Gas 101: An Overview of Oil and Gas Upstream Activities, Regulations, and

Oil and Gas 101: An Overview of Oil and Gas Upstream Activities, Regulations, and Emission Inventories Jennifer Snyder, U. S. EPA Melissa Weitz, U. S. EPA Adam Eisele, U. S. EPA Regi Oommen and Mike Pring, Eastern Research Group July 29, 2019 Emission Inventory Conference Dallas, TX

Presenters • • • Mike Pring, Eastern Research Group, Inc. • mike. pring@erg. com

Presenters • • • Mike Pring, Eastern Research Group, Inc. • mike. [email protected] com Jennifer Snyder, U. S. EPA • Snyder. [email protected] gov Adam Eisele, U. S. EPA • Eisele. [email protected] gov Melissa Weitz, U. S. EPA • Weitz. [email protected] gov Regi Oommen, Eastern Research Group, Inc. • regi. [email protected] com 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 2

Training Overview • • Oil and gas production in the United States Upstream oil

Training Overview • • Oil and gas production in the United States Upstream oil and gas emission sources Data resources Federal oil and gas regulations EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory (GHGEI) EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) (Subpart W) Oil and gas emission estimates in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) • Future plans • Use and application of the Nonpoint Oil and Gas Emission Estimation Tool 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 3

Oil and Gas Production in the US • Over 3 billion barrels of crude

Oil and Gas Production in the US • Over 3 billion barrels of crude oil produced in 2017 • ~50% increase since 2011 • ~The same as 2015 • ~18% of production offshore (was 30% in 2010) • Texas, North Dakota, California • Over 29 trillion cubic feet of gas produced in 2017 • ~30% increase since 2009 • ~4% of production offshore • Texas, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 4

US Crude Oil Production (onshore) Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration 11/3/2020 U. S.

US Crude Oil Production (onshore) Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 5

US Natural Gas Production (onshore) Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration 11/3/2020 U. S.

US Natural Gas Production (onshore) Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 6

Natural Gas, NGLs, Condensate, Oil • Natural Gas (C 1 – primarily Methane) •

Natural Gas, NGLs, Condensate, Oil • Natural Gas (C 1 – primarily Methane) • Natural Gas Liquids (C 2 – C 4) • Ethane, Propane, Butane • Extracted at gas processing plants • “Wet gas” • Condensate (~C 5+) • Condenses out of gas stream at surface • Crude Oil (mixture of heavier hydrocarbons) • Distilled into gasoline, kerosene, diesel, jet fuel 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 7

Eagle Ford Shale Oil and Gas Well Map Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration

Eagle Ford Shale Oil and Gas Well Map Source: U. S. Energy Information Administration 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 8

11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 9

11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 9

Upstream Oil and Gas Emission Sources 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 10

Upstream Oil and Gas Emission Sources 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 10

Upstream Oil and Gas Emission Sources Exploration Sources • Drilling Rigs • Hydraulic Fracturing

Upstream Oil and Gas Emission Sources Exploration Sources • Drilling Rigs • Hydraulic Fracturing Pumps • Mud Degassing • Well Completion Venting Production Sources • Artificial Lift Engines • Associated Gas Venting • CBM Dewatering Pump Engines • Condensate Tanks • Crude Oil Tanks • Dehydrators 11/3/2020 Production Sources (continued) • Fugitive Leaks • Gas-Actuated Pneumatic Pumps • Heaters • Lateral Compressor Engines • Liquids Unloading • Hydrocarbon Liquids Loading • Pneumatic Devices • Produced Water Tanks • Wellhead Compressor Engines U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 11

Tool Estimation Methodologies • Area (nonpoint) source methodologies • Based on point source methodologies

Tool Estimation Methodologies • Area (nonpoint) source methodologies • Based on point source methodologies averaged over the population • Scaled to the county level using activity factors (well counts, oil production, gas production) • Refer to “ 2017 Nonpoint Oil and Gas Emission Estimation Tool Version 1” (April, 2019) for details 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 12

Exploration - Drilling Rigs • Used to drill wellbore to target formation • 2

Exploration - Drilling Rigs • Used to drill wellbore to target formation • 2 primary rig types • Mechanical • Diesel-electric • Powered by large, diesel engines (~1, 000 – 1, 500 HP) • ~2 – 4 weeks 11/3/2020 EPA photo. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 13

Drilling Rigs • Emissions based on cumulative feet drilled • Process characteristics needed to

Drilling Rigs • Emissions based on cumulative feet drilled • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Engine size and type (Horsepower, HP) • Operating hours (hr/spud) • Emission factors from EPA's NONROAD model • Methodology accounts for different types of rig configurations (mechanical and diesel-electric) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 14

Mud Degassing • Mud degassing refers to the process of “off-gassing” of entrained gas

Mud Degassing • Mud degassing refers to the process of “off-gassing” of entrained gas in the drilling mud once it is outside of the wellbore • Drilling mud used to keep the drill bit cool, carry out drill cuttings, and maintain wellbore pressure to prevent formation fluids from entering wellbore • Emissions based on total drilling days • Emission factor derived from 1977 EPA report “Atmospheric Emissions from Offshore Oil and Gas Development and Production” 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 15

Hydraulic Fracturing Pumps • Emissions based on number of fracture events • Process characteristics

Hydraulic Fracturing Pumps • Emissions based on number of fracture events • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Engine size (HP) • Number of engines • Operating hours (hr/event) • Emission factors from EPA's NONROAD model 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 16

Well Completion Venting • Emissions generated as gas is vented prior to well being

Well Completion Venting • Emissions generated as gas is vented prior to well being brought into production • For fractured wells, emissions are generated as gas entrained in the flowback fluid is emitted through open vents at the top of flowback tanks • Fractured wells regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa 11/3/2020 Example of Green Completion Equipment (Source: Weatherford) U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 17

Well Completion Venting • Emissions based on number of completion events • Process characteristics

Well Completion Venting • Emissions based on number of completion events • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Volume of gas released per completion (Million Cubic Feet (MCF)/event) • Oil and gas • Conventional and unconventional • Gas composition • Controls 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 18

Production Sources Source : Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG

Production Sources Source : Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG 5942 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 19

Artificial Lift Engines • “Pumpjack” engines • Engines used to lift oil out of

Artificial Lift Engines • “Pumpjack” engines • Engines used to lift oil out of the well if there is not enough bottom hole pressure for the oil to flow to the surface • Generally use casinghead gas 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 20

Artificial Lift Engines • Emissions based on number of oil wells • Process characteristics

Artificial Lift Engines • Emissions based on number of oil wells • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Engine size (HP) • Engine operating schedule (hr/yr) • Fraction of oil wells with engines • Emission factors from AP-42 • Electric engines are common, accounted for in methodology 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 21

Associated Gas Venting • Refers to the practice of venting gas produced at oil

Associated Gas Venting • Refers to the practice of venting gas produced at oil wells where the well is not connected to a gas sales pipeline • May be flared (e. g. Bakken Shale) • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Quantity of gas vented per barrel of oil production (MCF/bbl) • Fraction of gas flared • Composition of the vented gas 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 22

Coalbed Methane Dewatering Pump Engines • Pumps used to remove water from the wellbore

Coalbed Methane Dewatering Pump Engines • Pumps used to remove water from the wellbore • Similar to artificial lift engines • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Engine size (HP) • Engine operating schedule (hr/yr) • Fraction of CBM wells with engines • Electric engines are common, accounted for in methodology 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 23

Condensate Tanks EPA photo. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 24

Condensate Tanks EPA photo. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 24

Condensate Tanks • Emissions based on condensate production • Emissions occur from flashing, working,

Condensate Tanks • Emissions based on condensate production • Emissions occur from flashing, working, and breathing losses • Flashing losses are generally the largest component and occur when gases entrained in a liquid “flash off” as the pressure drops • Emissions per barrel of condensate needed to estimate total county-level emissions (lb/bbl) • Regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 25

Crude Oil Tanks • Used to store crude oil at a well pad or

Crude Oil Tanks • Used to store crude oil at a well pad or central tank battery prior to transfer to a refinery • Some oil fields pipe oil directly downstream and do not have tanks in the field • Accounted for in Tool • Largest Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) source as calculated by the Tool 11/3/2020 Permian Basin Tank Battery Source: Google Earth U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 26

Crude Oil Tanks • Emissions based on oil production • Emissions occur from flashing,

Crude Oil Tanks • Emissions based on oil production • Emissions occur from flashing, working, and breathing losses • Emissions per barrel of crude oil needed to estimate total county-level emissions (lb/bbl) • Regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 27

Dehydrators • Use glycol to remove water from gas stream to prevent corrosion or

Dehydrators • Use glycol to remove water from gas stream to prevent corrosion or freezing issues downstream • Small reboiler used to regenerate the glycol • May be located at well pad, or at centrally located gathering station 11/3/2020 EPA photo. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 28

Dehydrators • Emissions generated from the still vent and the reboiler • Emissions from

Dehydrators • Emissions generated from the still vent and the reboiler • Emissions from the still vent based on gas production • Emissions per throughput (lb/MMSCF) • Emissions from the reboiler based on gas well count • Number of dehydrators per well • Reboiler size (MMBtu/hr) and operating schedule (hr/yr) • NESHAP HH and HHH may require controls 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 29

Fugitive Leaks • Emissions of gas that escape through well site components such as

Fugitive Leaks • Emissions of gas that escape through well site components such as connectors, flanges, and valves • Source category only covers components located at the well pad • Regulated under NSPS OOOOa 11/3/2020 Source : Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG 5942 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 30

Fugitive Leaks • Emissions based on well count • Process characteristics needed to estimate

Fugitive Leaks • Emissions based on well count • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Counts of fugitive components by type per well • Operating schedule (hr/yr) • Composition of leaked gas • Emission factors from “Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates” (EPA, 1995) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 31

Gas-Actuated Pneumatic Pumps • Small gas-driven plunger pumps used to provide a constant supply

Gas-Actuated Pneumatic Pumps • Small gas-driven plunger pumps used to provide a constant supply of chemicals or lubricants • Commonly used in sites where electric power is unavailable • Gas-actuated pumps vent by design 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 32

Gas-Actuated Pneumatic Pumps • • • Emissions based on well counts Kimray pumps Chemical

Gas-Actuated Pneumatic Pumps • • • Emissions based on well counts Kimray pumps Chemical injection pumps (CIP) Certain pumps regulated under NSPS OOOOa Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Count of pumps per well (oil, gas, CBM) • Pump vent rate (SCF per throughput or day) • Composition of vented gas 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 33

Heaters • Line heaters - used to maintain temperatures as pressure decreases to prevent

Heaters • Line heaters - used to maintain temperatures as pressure decreases to prevent formation of hydrates (Marcellus Shale) • Heater treaters – used to heat oil/water emulsions to aid in separation (Bakken Source : Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG 5942 Shale, Permian Basin) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 34

Heaters • Emissions based on the number of wells • Heaters used as control

Heaters • Emissions based on the number of wells • Heaters used as control devices regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Number of heaters per well • Heater size (MMBtu/hr) • Operating schedule (hr/yr) • Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) content (to estimate sulfur dioxide, SO 2) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 35

Lateral Compressor Engines • • • Large “line” engines May serve ~10 to 100

Lateral Compressor Engines • • • Large “line” engines May serve ~10 to 100 wells Used at gathering or booster stations (mid-stream) Natural gas-fired Rich-burn or lean-burn 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 36

Lateral Compressor Engines • Emissions based on the number of gas wells • Compressors

Lateral Compressor Engines • Emissions based on the number of gas wells • Compressors regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Number of gas wells served by a lateral engine • Engine size (HP) • Operating schedule (hr/yr) • Control information 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 37

Liquids Unloading • Used to remove accumulation of fluids in the wellbore • Also

Liquids Unloading • Used to remove accumulation of fluids in the wellbore • Also known as “well blowdowns” • May be controlled (flaring or plunger lifts) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 38

Liquids Unloading • Emissions based on the number of gas wells • Process characteristics

Liquids Unloading • Emissions based on the number of gas wells • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Number of unloading events per well • Volume of vented gas per liquids unloading event (MCF/event) • Composition of vented gas • Control information 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 39

Hydrocarbon Liquids Loading • Emissions generated during transfer of liquids from tanks to trucks

Hydrocarbon Liquids Loading • Emissions generated during transfer of liquids from tanks to trucks • As with storage tank emissions, where liquids are piped directly downstream, no emissions from this Source : Texas Commission on Environmental category Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG 5942 • Accounted for in Tool 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 40

Hydrocarbon Liquids Loading • Emissions based on oil and condensate production • AP-42 loading

Hydrocarbon Liquids Loading • Emissions based on oil and condensate production • AP-42 loading loss equation used to estimate emissions • Tank vapor composition needed to estimate VOC and Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 41

Pneumatic Devices • Use high-pressure gas to produce mechanical motion (levers, switches) • Largest

Pneumatic Devices • Use high-pressure gas to produce mechanical motion (levers, switches) • Largest methane (CH 4) source under Subpart W and in the GHGEI (production sector) • 2 nd largest VOC source as calculated by the Tool 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 42

Pneumatic Devices • Emissions based on the number of wells • Process characteristics needed

Pneumatic Devices • Emissions based on the number of wells • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Number of devices per well • Type of devices (high, low, and intermittent-bleed) • Volume of vented gas per device (SCF/hr/device) • Operating schedule (hr/yr) • Composition of vented gas • Regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 43

Produced Water Tanks • Store water separated at the wellhead • Emissions generated from

Produced Water Tanks • Store water separated at the wellhead • Emissions generated from working and breathing losses • Water may be injected underground to maintain pressure (waterflooding) or Source : Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG 5942 for disposal 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 44

Produced Water Tanks • Emissions based on produced water production • Emissions occur from

Produced Water Tanks • Emissions based on produced water production • Emissions occur from working and breathing losses • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Emissions per barrel of production (lb/bbl) • Fraction of produced water directed to tanks • Composition of the tank vapors 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 45

Wellhead Compressor Engines • Provide energy to move produced gas downstream to gathering or

Wellhead Compressor Engines • Provide energy to move produced gas downstream to gathering or boosting station • Brought onsite as well pressure drops • Utilize produced gas as fuel • Largest Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) source as calculated by the Tool 11/3/2020 Source : Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Air Permit Reference Guide APDG 5942 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 46

Wellhead Compressor Engines • Compressors regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa • Emissions based

Wellhead Compressor Engines • Compressors regulated under NSPS OOOO and OOOOa • Emissions based on the number of gas wells • Process characteristics needed to estimate emissions • Fraction of gas wells requiring compression • Engine size (HP) • Operating schedule (hr/yr) • Control information 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 47

Data Resources • National Oil & Gas Committee Information Repository • Existing studies •

Data Resources • National Oil & Gas Committee Information Repository • Existing studies • EPA Natural Gas STAR Program – https: //www. epa. gov/natural-gas-starprogram/natural-gas-star-program • Industry surveys • State permitting/inventory data 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 48

Existing Studies • National Oil & Gas Committee Information Repository – http: //vibe. cira.

Existing Studies • National Oil & Gas Committee Information Repository – http: //vibe. cira. colostate. edu/ogec/home. htm • Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) – https: //www. tceq. texas. gov/airquality/airmod/project/pj_repor t_ei. html • Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) – https: //www. wrapair 2. org/emissions. aspx 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 49

Industry Surveys • Send directly to industry, focused or broad • Recent industry surveys/examples

Industry Surveys • Send directly to industry, focused or broad • Recent industry surveys/examples – – Cen. SARA TCEQ WRAP PA 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 50

State Permitting/Inventory Data • Permit applications • Annual emissions inventory submittals • Dehydrator simulation

State Permitting/Inventory Data • Permit applications • Annual emissions inventory submittals • Dehydrator simulation software – Gas Research Institute (GRI) GLYCalc Model – Pro. Max®, Aspen HYSYS®, etc. • Storage tank simulation software – American Petroleum Institute (API) E&P TANKS – Pro. Max®, Aspen HYSYS®, etc. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 51

State Permitting/Inventory Data • EPA (Cindy Beeler) presentation – GRI-GLYCalc and E&P TANK example

State Permitting/Inventory Data • EPA (Cindy Beeler) presentation – GRI-GLYCalc and E&P TANK example applications – http: //vibe. cira. colostate. edu/ogec/docs/meetings/2015 -0312/National. OGEmission. Work. Group_031215_GLYCalc_EPT ank 4. pdf • Data may be used to develop “nonpoint” factors – GRI-GLYCalc - fugitive gas composition and dehydrator emission factors – E&P TANK – VOC and HAP emission factors 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 52

GRI-GLYCalc Gas Composition 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 53

GRI-GLYCalc Gas Composition 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 53

GRI-GLYCalc Gas Composition 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 54

GRI-GLYCalc Gas Composition 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 54

GRI-GLYCalc Dehydrator Emissions 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 55

GRI-GLYCalc Dehydrator Emissions 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 55

E&P TANKS 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 56

E&P TANKS 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 56

BREAK 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 57

BREAK 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 57

Federal Oil and Gas Regulations • New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) – Applies to

Federal Oil and Gas Regulations • New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) – Applies to new or modified sources – Subparts Kb, KKK, LLL, OOOO, and OOOOa – Subparts IIII, JJJJ (engines) • National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) – Applies to sources of hazardous air pollutants – Subparts HH, HHH, ZZZZ 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 58

NSPS Subpart Kb - Storage Vessels • Applicability – Tanks modified/constructed after 7/23/1984 –

NSPS Subpart Kb - Storage Vessels • Applicability – Tanks modified/constructed after 7/23/1984 – Storage vessels (tanks) ≥ 75 m 3 (19, 812 gal) containing volatile organic liquids – Tank size and vapor pressure cutoffs – Does not apply to vessels with a design capacity less than or equal to 1, 590 m 3 (420, 000 gal) used for petroleum or condensate stored, processed, or treated prior to custody transfer • Requirements – Fixed roof and internal floating roof; or – External floating roof; or – Closed vent system and a control device that reduces VOC emissions by 95% 59

NSPS Subpart KKK – VOC Equipment Leak Standards Onshore Natural Gas Processing Plants •

NSPS Subpart KKK – VOC Equipment Leak Standards Onshore Natural Gas Processing Plants • Applicability – Modified/constructed between 1/20/1984 and 8/23/2011 – Process units (dehydration, sweetening, storage tanks, etc. ) • Requirements – Establishes standards for VOC – Refers to equipment leak standards in 40 CFR 60 Subpart VV (LDAR) – Closed vent systems and control devices used for compliance must achieve 95% VOC control 60

NSPS Subpart LLL- SO 2 Standards for Onshore Natural Gas Processing • Applicability –

NSPS Subpart LLL- SO 2 Standards for Onshore Natural Gas Processing • Applicability – Modified/constructed between 1/20/1984 and 8/23/2011 – Sweetening units and sulfur recovery units • Requirements – Establishes standards for SO 2 – Achieve SO 2 emissions reduction efficiency on a continuous basis – Monitor sulfur production rate, H 2 S concentration in the acid gas, acid gas flow rate, and sulfur dioxide emission reduction efficiency – If compliance is achieved via oxidation or reduction control systems, continuous monitoring of the sulfur emission rate is required 61

NSPS Subpart IIII – Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines • Applicability – Modified/constructed

NSPS Subpart IIII – Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines • Applicability – Modified/constructed after 7/11/2005 (earliest date) – Stationary engines (not mobile) – Diesel engines • Requirements – Manufacturer/owner requirements differ – NOx, Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Particulate Matter (PM) limits – Requirements depend on size, date, location, function (emergency) 62

NSPS Subpart JJJJ – Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines • Applicability – Modified/constructed

NSPS Subpart JJJJ – Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines • Applicability – Modified/constructed after 6/12/2006 (earliest date) – Stationary engines (not mobile) – Natural gas and gasoline-fired engines • Requirements – – Manufacturer/owner requirements differ NOx, CO, VOC limits Fuel sulfur limits for gasoline Requirements depend on size, type, and date 63

NSPS Subpart OOOO - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution •

NSPS Subpart OOOO - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution • Applicability – Modified/constructed between 8/23/2011 and 9/18/2015 – Gas well completions with hydraulic fracturing – Compressor seals – Pneumatic controllers – Storage vessels – Equipment leaks at natural gas processing plants – Sweetening units located at onshore natural gas processing plants 64

NSPS Subpart OOOO - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution (cont.

NSPS Subpart OOOO - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution (cont. ) • Requirements – – – – Gas well completion controls Centrifugal compressors using wet seals must reduce emissions by 95% Reciprocating compressors maintenance requirements Pneumatic controllers at natural gas processing plants must have a bleed rate of zero Pneumatic controllers located elsewhere must have a bleed rate less than or equal to 6 scf/hr Storage vessels: maintain actual VOC emissions < 4 tpy, or control VOC by 95% Equipment leak monitoring at natural gas processing units (replaces Subpart KKK) Limits SO 2 from onshore gas processing (replaces Subpart LLL) 65

NSPS Subpart OOOOa - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution •

NSPS Subpart OOOOa - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution • Applicability – – – Modified/constructed after 9/18/2015 Gas and oil well completions with hydraulic fracturing Compressor seals Pneumatic controllers and pumps Storage vessels Equipment Leaks at natural gas processing plants, well sites, and compressor stations – Sweetening units located at onshore natural gas processing plants 66

NSPS Subpart OOOOa - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution (cont.

NSPS Subpart OOOOa - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution (cont. ) • Requirements – Carries forward NSPS Subpart OOOO requirements – Additions • Standards for CH 4 • Oil well completion controls (green completions) • Control requirement for pneumatic pumps at well sites and processing plants • LDAR requirements for well sites and compressor stations 67

NSPS Subpart OOOOa - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution (cont.

NSPS Subpart OOOOa - Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution (cont. ) 68

NESHAP Subpart HH- Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities • Applicability – Covers major

NESHAP Subpart HH- Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities • Applicability – Covers major and area sources of HAP that process, upgrade, or store hydrocarbon liquids or that process, upgrade, or store natural gas • Major sources: Glycol dehydration units, storage vessels, and equipment in volatile HAP service • Area sources: Triethylene glycol (TEG) dehydration units • Requirements – Glycol dehydration units and storage vessels • 95% control • Inspect and monitor using Method 21 – Equipment in volatile HAP service must comply with Subpart V (LDAR) – Area source TEG dehydration units • In urban areas, use same control as for major sources • In rural areas, operate at optimal glycol recirculation rate 69

NESHAP Subpart HHH - Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities • Applicability – Applies

NESHAP Subpart HHH - Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities • Applicability – Applies to major sources of HAP – New and existing glycol dehydration units • Requirements – Large units must route emissions to a control device • reduce TOC/HAP by 95%, or • reduce outlet concentration of TOC/HAP to 20 ppmv, or • reduce benzene emissions to less than 0. 90 Mg/year (1 tpy). – Small units must limit BTEX emissions • route emissions to a control device, or • meet an emissions limit through process modifications. 70

NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ - Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines • Applicability – Applies to

NESHAP Subpart ZZZZ - Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines • Applicability – Applies to major and minor sources of HAP – Applies to new and existing reciprocating engines – Tighter requirements for new engines • Requirements – Includes emissions standards and O&M requirements • Oil and filter change, air filter, spark plugs – Formaldehyde, CO limitations – Oxidation catalysts – Requirements complicated, dependent on major/minor status, size, type, location, function (emergency, limited use) 71

BREAK 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 72

BREAK 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 72

Acknowledgements • National Oil and Gas Committee • ERG Staff o o o 11/3/2020

Acknowledgements • National Oil and Gas Committee • ERG Staff o o o 11/3/2020 Bebhinn Do Stacie Enoch Karla Faught Steve Mendenhall Mike Pring Jody Tisano U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 73

Overview of the Presentation • Introduction/Timeline of the Tool Development • 2017 NEI Oil

Overview of the Presentation • Introduction/Timeline of the Tool Development • 2017 NEI Oil and Gas Tool Coverage • Walking through the Tool • Case Studies using the 2017 Tool • Discussion/Future Plans 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 74

Where We Were • 2011 Oil and Gas Tool o Converted from Excel Workbook

Where We Were • 2011 Oil and Gas Tool o Converted from Excel Workbook to Access o Spreadsheet-type formatted tables 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 75

Where We Are • 2017 Oil and Gas Tool o Re-engineered to enhance user

Where We Are • 2017 Oil and Gas Tool o Re-engineered to enhance user experience o Dashboard, buttons, import/export procedures 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 76

2017 Tool Coverage – Source Categories • Exploration Sources: o Drilling o Mud degassing

2017 Tool Coverage – Source Categories • Exploration Sources: o Drilling o Mud degassing o Hydraulic fracturing o Well completions 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 77

2017 Tool Coverage – Source Categories • Production Sources: o Artificial Lifts o Associated

2017 Tool Coverage – Source Categories • Production Sources: o Artificial Lifts o Associated Gas o CBM Dewatering Tanks* o Condensate Tanks o Crude Oil Tanks o Dehydrators o Fugitives o Gas-Actuated Pumps o o o o Heaters Lateral/Gathering Compressors Liquids Unloading Loading Operations Pneumatic Devices Produced Water Wellhead Compressors * New Source Category added for 2017 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 78

2017 Tool Coverage – Pollutants • Criteria Pollutants: o CO, NH 3, NOx, PM

2017 Tool Coverage – Pollutants • Criteria Pollutants: o CO, NH 3, NOx, PM 10 -PRI*, PM 2. 5 -PRI*, SO 2, VOC • HAPs: o BTEX, formaldehyde, and Other HAPs** • Other Pollutants: o Hydrogen sulfide * Filterable and condensable were added for the 2017 NEI ** Additional HAPs were added for the 2017 NEI 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 79

2017 Tool Data Sources • Methodologies: EPA, Cen. SARA, and Texas calculation tools •

2017 Tool Data Sources • Methodologies: EPA, Cen. SARA, and Texas calculation tools • Activity Data: HPDI, state-provided activity data, state OGC databases, EIA, GHGRP, Rig. Data • Emission Factors: mostly EPA AP-42; API, Climate Registry, GHGRP • Basin Factors: EPA; Cen. SARA; state feedback; SPECIATE 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 80

2017 Tool Results • Source category coverage: 57 Source Classification Codes (SCCs) from 19

2017 Tool Results • Source category coverage: 57 Source Classification Codes (SCCs) from 19 source categories • Pollutant coverage: 70 pollutants • Geographic coverage: 34 states, 1, 173 counties, 66 basins • Emission records generated: o From Tool = 1, 063, 828 o To EIS = 865, 046 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 81

Let’s Walk Through the Tool… • Tool Modules: o OIL_GAS_TOOL_2017_NEI_PRODUCTION_V 1_1. zip o OIL_GAS_TOOL_2017_NEI_EXPLORATION_V

Let’s Walk Through the Tool… • Tool Modules: o OIL_GAS_TOOL_2017_NEI_PRODUCTION_V 1_1. zip o OIL_GAS_TOOL_2017_NEI_EXPLORATION_V 1_1. zip • Each Module contains: o Tool in Microsoft® Access® format o Blank Area Bridgetool database o Instructions 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 82

Production Sources – Getting Started • If using the Tool for the first time

Production Sources – Getting Started • If using the Tool for the first time from unzipping, then you will need to “Enable Content” 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 83

Production Sources – Linking to EIS Staging Tables • Click on the “LINK TO

Production Sources – Linking to EIS Staging Tables • Click on the “LINK TO EIS STAGING TABLES” button, and a pop-up box will appear. Follow the instructions to link in the EIS Staging tables in the “nonpoint_bridge_tool. accdb” database (see figure below). If successfully linked, 11 tables will be linked. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 84

Production Sources – Linking to EIS Staging Tables • Once you have identified the

Production Sources – Linking to EIS Staging Tables • Once you have identified the location of the “area_bridgetool. accdb” database to link, click on the “Link Tables” button. If successful, 11 tables will be linked. When finished click on the “When finished, Click here. ” button. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 85

Production Sources – Step 1 • Select the geographic-level of the emissions inventory based

Production Sources – Step 1 • Select the geographic-level of the emissions inventory based on interest. Most Users will select the “STATE” view. When finished, click the “When finished, click here to complete this step. ” button. A message box will appear instructing the User to proceed to Step 2. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 86

Production Sources – Step 2 • Select the specific geographic location of interest. The

Production Sources – Step 2 • Select the specific geographic location of interest. The User may select more than one specific location. When finished, click the “When finished, click here to complete this step. ” button. A message box will appear instructing the User to proceed to Step 3. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 87

Production Sources – Step 3 • The User may generate emission estimates for all

Production Sources – Step 3 • The User may generate emission estimates for all oil and gas production source categories or individually select source categories. When finished, click the “When finished, click here to complete this step. ” button. A message box will appear instructing the User to proceed to Step 4. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 88

Production Sources – Step 4 • Select the specific Source Categories to generate emission

Production Sources – Step 4 • Select the specific Source Categories to generate emission estimates. A message box will appear instructing the User to proceed to Steps 5, 6, and 7 to review/edit the activity data, basin factors, and emission factors; or to proceed directly to Step 8 for Point Source Activity Adjustments. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 89

Production Sources – Step 5 • The User can view and edit the activity

Production Sources – Step 5 • The User can view and edit the activity data that EPA has compiled for the geographic area and source categories selected 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 90

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • Once the county-level data set is

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • Once the county-level data set is selected, an Activity Data form will appear that the User can view or edit. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 91

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • The User may also edit activity

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • The User may also edit activity data in Microsoft® Excel® by using the “Import/Export Data…” button. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 92

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • If the user elects to edit

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • If the user elects to edit activity data in Excel®, after clicking the button, the data is then exported into Excel as shown below. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 93

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • An Excel® workbook will open when

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • An Excel® workbook will open when finished exporting. It is required that the User save this file to the hard drive for later upload. In the Excel file, the User can only edit the yellow shaded cells. When completed, simply save the file. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 94

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • The User will need to go

Production Sources – Step 5 (cont. ) • The User will need to go back to the Tool and click on the “Import/Export Data…” button to initiate importing the edited data file. After clicking, the Import/Export form will appear. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 95

Production Sources – Step 6 • In Step 6, the User can view and

Production Sources – Step 6 • In Step 6, the User can view and edit the basin factor data that EPA has compiled for the geographic area and source categories selected. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 96

Production Sources – Step 6 (cont) • In Step 6, the User can view/edit

Production Sources – Step 6 (cont) • In Step 6, the User can view/edit the basin factor data. If the User updates values for one county in a basin, then all other counties in the basin and state can be updated by clicking on the “Click to apply these values to all other counties in the same basin for the state. ” button. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 97

Production Sources – Step 7 • In Step 7, the User can view or

Production Sources – Step 7 • In Step 7, the User can view or edit the emission factors that are used to generate the emission estimates for the source categories selected. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 98

Production Sources – Step 7 (cont) • Once a Source Category has been selected,

Production Sources – Step 7 (cont) • Once a Source Category has been selected, the User can view or edit the emission factors. The User should update the reference field (EMISSION_FACTOR_SOURCE) for any updated emission factors. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 99

Production Sources – Step 8 • In Step 8, the User may enter point

Production Sources – Step 8 • In Step 8, the User may enter point source activity data to account for emissions that are to be reported to the point sources emissions inventory. If the User does not have any point source activity adjustments, then they will need to click the “When finished, click here to complete this step. ” button. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 100

Production Sources – Step 8 (cont. ) • Point source activity adjustments are preferred

Production Sources – Step 8 (cont. ) • Point source activity adjustments are preferred over point source emission adjustments. Additionally, Users should pay careful attention to ensure that the point source activity data is entered in the same units as the nonpoint activity data (e. g. , MMBBL vs. MBBL). 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 101

Production Sources – Step 9 • In Step 9, the User can make point

Production Sources – Step 9 • In Step 9, the User can make point source emission adjustments directly in the emission tables. Select a Source Category to open. If a User has no point source emissions adjustments, they may click on the “When finished, click here to complete this step” button. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 102

Production Sources – Step 9 (cont. ) • Point source emission estimates are to

Production Sources – Step 9 (cont. ) • Point source emission estimates are to be entered in the “POINT_EMISSIONS_TPY” field. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 103

Production Sources – Step 10 • In Step 10, the User can review the

Production Sources – Step 10 • In Step 10, the User can review the final emissions; update county-level activity data, emission factors, and/or basin factors they provided in Steps 5 through 7; or generate the Emission Inventory System (EIS) data tables. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 104

Production Sources – Step 10 (cont) • Point source activity and/or emissions adjustments can

Production Sources – Step 10 (cont) • Point source activity and/or emissions adjustments can also be saved within the Tool for future use. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 105

Additional Notes • In the EIS Staging Tables, the following tables are populated: o

Additional Notes • In the EIS Staging Tables, the following tables are populated: o Control. Approach o Control. Measure o Control. Pollutant o Emissions. Process o Location o Reporting. Period • The Exploration Module runs the same way as the Production Module. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 106

Additional Notes (cont. ) • If the User wishes to reset the tool, and

Additional Notes (cont. ) • If the User wishes to reset the tool, and regenerate the emissions, the following steps are recommended: o Click on the “Reset All Selections/Go to Step 1” button at the top of the Dashboard. o Compact and Repair the database. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 107

Additional Notes (cont. ) • References cited for the original data in the Tool

Additional Notes (cont. ) • References cited for the original data in the Tool are found in the ”Master References” tab. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 108

Case Studies. (please have both the Production and Exploration modules open) 11/3/2020 U. S.

Case Studies. (please have both the Production and Exploration modules open) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 109

Case Study #1 • The Permian Basin consists of 4 counties in New Mexico

Case Study #1 • The Permian Basin consists of 4 counties in New Mexico and 62 counties in Texas. In 2014, the basin produced: o 582, 987, 082 barrels of oil from 125, 421 wells o 552, 747, 870 MSCF of natural gas from 24, 606 wells o 121, 407 MSCF coalbed methane from 12 wells Use the Tool to calculate the nonpoint VOC emissions for crude oil tanks for each state, and the % of total production sources. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 110

Case Study #1 (cont. ) • Crude Oil Tank VOC emissions in Permian Basin

Case Study #1 (cont. ) • Crude Oil Tank VOC emissions in Permian Basin in: o New Mexico = 69, 740 tpy o Texas = 275, 690 tpy • All Production Sources, VOC emissions in Permian Basin in: o New Mexico = 102, 209 tpy o Texas = 420, 112 tpy • % Crude oil Tank VOC emissions to All VOC Production Sources in Permian Basin: o New Mexico = 25. 2% o Texas = 65. 6% 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 111

Case Study #2 • Based on new permit applications, unconventional drilling activity is expected

Case Study #2 • Based on new permit applications, unconventional drilling activity is expected to begin in Wake County, NC (FIPS = 37183). Calculate NOx emissions from exploration sources. Ø 100 natural gas wells drilled horizontally; total estimated feet drilled is 425, 000 ft. Ø 85 natural gas wells completed NCDENR is also wanting to evaluate the impact of limiting hydraulic fracturing engines to 3. 5 g/hp-hr for NOx from the current factor of 5. 831 g/hp-hr for NOx. Calculate the NOx impact. 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 112

Case Study #2 (cont. ) • Baseline NOx Exploration emissions in Wake County. NC:

Case Study #2 (cont. ) • Baseline NOx Exploration emissions in Wake County. NC: o Drilling = 145 tpy o Hydraulic Fracturing = 13 tpy o Completions, natural gas wells = 7. 6 tpy • Total Baseline NOx Exploration emissions in Wake County. NC = 165. 6 tpy 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 113

Case Study #2 (cont. ) • Controlled NOx emissions in Wake County. NC: o

Case Study #2 (cont. ) • Controlled NOx emissions in Wake County. NC: o Drilling = 145 tpy o Hydraulic Fracturing = 7. 8 tpy (40% reduction) o Completions, natural gas wells = 7. 6 tpy • Total Baseline NOx Exploration emissions in Wake County. NC = 160. 4 tpy (3. 1% reduction) 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 114

Case Study #3 • EPA is considering reducing the NOx emission factor for 4

Case Study #3 • EPA is considering reducing the NOx emission factor for 4 cycle lean-burn wellhead compressor engines at gas wells (SCC = 2310021202) to 0. 5 g/hp-hr in nonattainment areas (current factor = 3. 07359 g/hp-hr. Using the tool, assess: Ø Impact of total NOx emissions within nonattainment counties for SCC 2310021202 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 115

Case Study #3 (cont. ) • Baseline NOx emissions Ø Nonattainment Counties, all prod.

Case Study #3 (cont. ) • Baseline NOx emissions Ø Nonattainment Counties, all prod. sources = 57, 052 tpy Ø Nonattainment Counties, SCC 2310021202 = 4, 906 tpy • Controlled NOx emissions Ø Nonattainment Counties, all prod. sources = 52, 944 tpy Ø Nonattainment Counties, SCC 2310021202 = 798 tpy • Impact on NOx emissions = Ø Nonattainment Counties, all prod. sources = -7% Ø Nonattainment Counties, SCC 2310021202 = -84% 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 116

Case Study #4 • The state of Oklahoma provides point source emissions in the

Case Study #4 • The state of Oklahoma provides point source emissions in the NEI for several upstream oil and gas wells. Using the Tool, calculate benzene emissions from Dehydrators in Alfalfa County, OK (FIPS = 40003), after making point source activity adjustments. Ø Alfalfa County, OK Gas Production = 5, 017, 381 MSCF from 170 gas wells (No CBM production in Alfalfa County, OK) Ø Alfalfa County, OK Associated Gas Production = 107, 564, 300 MSCF from 783 oil wells Ø Point sources activity = 1, 706, 326 MSCF from 12 gas wells; 92, 718, 640 MSCF from 613 oil wells 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 117

Case Study #4 (cont. ) • Alfalfa County, OK, benzene Dehydrator emissions: Ø Without

Case Study #4 (cont. ) • Alfalfa County, OK, benzene Dehydrator emissions: Ø Without point source activity subtraction = 4. 50 tpy Ø With point source activity subtraction = 0. 73 tpy 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 118

Future Tool Updates • Include “Tribal” as a geographic option. • Include additional pollutants

Future Tool Updates • Include “Tribal” as a geographic option. • Include additional pollutants o SPECIATE profiles include pollutants not in the Tool o Gas analysis includes pollutants not in the Tool • Include/Update additional control options/scenarios o Electric-powered engines o Vapor recovery units • Update basin factors o Recent studies? 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 119

Discussion/Q&A • What else would you like to see? • Q&A 11/3/2020 U. S.

Discussion/Q&A • What else would you like to see? • Q&A 11/3/2020 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 120