OFFICE OF SCIENCE Basic Energy Sciences Board on

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OFFICE OF SCIENCE Basic Energy Sciences Board on Physics and Astronomy Spring Meeting Keck

OFFICE OF SCIENCE Basic Energy Sciences Board on Physics and Astronomy Spring Meeting Keck Center of the National Academies April 24, 2009 Harriet Kung Director, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy

What’s New I. Staffing II. The BESAC “New Era” Subcommittee Report: “New Science for

What’s New I. Staffing II. The BESAC “New Era” Subcommittee Report: “New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future” III. Budget § § H. R. 1, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 FY 2009 Budget Appropriation Ø EFRC and SISGR Updates IV. LCLS First Light 2

BES Budget and Planning Office of Basic Energy Sciences Bob Astheimer, Technical Advisor Margie

BES Budget and Planning Office of Basic Energy Sciences Bob Astheimer, Technical Advisor Margie Davis, Financial Management Vacant, Program Support Specialist Materials Sciences and Engineering Division Linda Horton, Director Ehsan Khan, Program Manager Christie Ashton, Program Analyst Charnice Waters, Secretary Materials Discovery, Design, and Synthesis Arvind Kini Kerry Gorey, P. A. Materials Chemistry Dick Kelley Jim Mc. Breen, BNL Vacant Biomolecular Materials Mike Markowitz Synthesis and Processing Bonnie Gersten Jeff Tsao, SNL Mike Coltrin, SNL Tech. Coordination Program Management John Vetrano Vacant Condensed Matter and Materials Physics Jim Horwitz Marsophia Agnant, P. A. Mat. Exp. Cond. Scattering and Instrumentation Sciences Harriet Kung, Director Wanda Smith, Administrative Specialist Scientific User Facilities Division Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division Pedro Montano, Director Eric Rohlfing, Director Linda Cerrone, Program Support Specialist Rocio Meneses, Program Assistant Diane Marceau, Program Analyst Michaelene Kyler-King, Program Assistant Operations X-ray and Neutron Scattering Facilities Roger Klaffky Vacant Theo. Cond. Mat. Phys. Michael Lee Arun Bansil, NEU Jim Davenport, BNL Kim Ferris, PNNL Neutron Scattering Thiyaga P. Thiyagarajan Nanoscience Centers & E-beam Centers Tof Carim Physical Behavior of Materials Refik Kortan Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Jane Zhu Mechanical Behavior and Radiation Effects John Vetrano DOE EPSCo. R* Tim Fitzsimmons Helen Farrell, INL LEGEND Fundamental Interactions Photo- and Bio. Chemistry Chemical Transformations Michael Casassa Robin Felder, P. A. Rich Greene Sharron Watson, P. A. John Miller Teresa Crockett, P. A. Linac Coherent Light Source Tom Brown Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences Jeff Krause Solar Photochemistry Mark Spitler Catalysis Science Raul Miranda Paul Maupin NSLS II Tom Brown Gas-Phase Chemical Physics Wade Sisk Larry Rahn, SNL Photosynthetic Systems Gail Mc. Lean Spallation Neutron Source Upgrades Tom Brown Condensed-Phase and Interfacial Mol. Science Greg Fiechtner Physical Biosciences Bob Stack TEAM Vacant Computational and Theoretical Chemistry Mark Pederson Construction Helen Kerch Cheryl Howard, P. A. X-ray Scattering Lane Wilson Phys. Andy Schwartz Doug Finnemore, Ames * Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Detailee (from DOE laboratories) Detailee, ½ time, not at HQ Detailee, ¼ time, not at HQ On detail from SC-2, ½ time IPA (Interagency Personnel BES Operations Rich Burrow, DOE Technical Office Coordination Don Freeburn, DOE and Stakeholder Interactions Ken Rivera, Laboratory Infrastructure / ES&H Katie Perine, Program Analyst / BESAC Vacant, Technology Office Coordination Vacant Accelerator and Detector R&D Vacant Facility Coordination, Metrics, Assessment Van Nguyen Instrument MIEs (SING, LUSI, etc. ) Vacant Advanced Light Source User Support Building Tom Brown Heavy Element Chemistry Lester Morss Norm Edelstein, LBNL Separations and Analysis Bill Millman Larry Rahn, SNL Geosciences Nick Woodward Pat Dobson, LBNL Technology Office Coordination Marvin Singer Vacant April 2009 3 Posted 01 APR 09

Linda Announcement 4

Linda Announcement 4

Energy and Science Grand Challenges BESAC and BES Reports § Secure Energy Future, 2002

Energy and Science Grand Challenges BESAC and BES Reports § Secure Energy Future, 2002 § Hydrogen Economy, 2003 § Solar Energy Utilization, 2005 § Superconductivity, 2006 § Solid-state Lighting, 2006 § Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, 2006 § Clean and Efficient Combustion of Fuels, 2006 § Electrical Energy Storage, 2007 § Geosciences: Facilitating 21 st Century Energy Systems, 2007 § Materials Under Extreme Environments, 2007 § Directing Matter and Energy: Five Grand Challenges for Science and the Imagination, 2007 § New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future, http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes/reports/list. html 2008 5

New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future Co-Chairs: George Crabtree (ANL) and

New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future Co-Chairs: George Crabtree (ANL) and Marc Kastner (MIT) Members: Michelle Buchanan, Thomas Mallouk, John Sarrao, Michael Klein, Arthur Nozik, Julia Phillips, Sue Clark, Frank Di. Salvo, Don De. Paolo, Simon Bare, Wayne Hendrickson, Wolfgang Eberhardt, Franz Himpsel, Michael Norman, Andrea Cavalleri, Carl Lineberger, Yet-Ming Chiang, Pat Looney Charge: http: //www. sc. doe. gov /bes/reports/list. html § Summarize the range of scientific research directions that emerged from the 2002 BESAC report Basic Research Needs for a Secure Energy Future, the follow-on BES BRNs reports, and the BESAC report “Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination. ” Identify key cross-cutting scientific themes that are common to these reports. § Summarize the implementation strategies, and human resources that will be required to accomplish the science described in the aforementioned reports. Three Strategic Goals: Ø Making fuels from sunlight Ø Generating electricity without carbon dioxide emissions Ø Revolutionizing energy efficiency and use 6

Energy Sustainability and Materials Traditional Energy Materials Fuels: coal, oil, gas CH 0. 8,

Energy Sustainability and Materials Traditional Energy Materials Fuels: coal, oil, gas CH 0. 8, CH 2, CH 4 Passive Function: Combustion Value: Commodities High Energy Content Sustainable Energy Materials Diverse Functions PV, Superconductors, Photocatalysts Battery Electrodes Electrolytic Membranes Active Function: Converting Energy Value: Functionality 30 year Lifetime Greater Sustainability = Greater Complexity, higher functional materials 7

Solar Energy Utilization: PV Production Learning Curve 1976 “ 80% Learning Curve”: Module price

Solar Energy Utilization: PV Production Learning Curve 1976 “ 80% Learning Curve”: Module price decreases by 20% for every doubling of cumulative production Silicon Wafer Technologies 2005 2010 2015 80% Note: By 2020, current trajectory will supply 16 GW (peak) (~3. 5 GW avg) in U. S. whereas at least 425 GW will be needed just for electricity, 8

Solar Energy Utilization: Breakthroughs Needed New Science is required to move us off the

Solar Energy Utilization: Breakthroughs Needed New Science is required to move us off the present curve Future scenarios: Crystalline silicon Thin films/Concentrators New technologies PV grid parity (~$0. 10/k. Wh) is projected by 2015. But this is not good enough for massive use of solar power. That would require solar at $0. 02/k. Wh (cost of coal). And that bold goal requires basic research and resultant disruptive technology. 9

Enabling Technologies: Storing Energy Ø Store intermittent solar and wind electricity Ø Electrify transportation

Enabling Technologies: Storing Energy Ø Store intermittent solar and wind electricity Ø Electrify transportation with plug-in hybrids and electric cars 30 Energy/volume Energy Storage Density ethanol 20 hydrogen compounds (target) methanol combustion chemical + fuel cells = electricity 10 batteries super 0 capacitors gasoline compressed hydrogen gas 0 10 20 Energy/weight 30 40 x 2 -5 increase in battery energy density; x 10 -20 increase through chemical storage + fuel cells 10

New Science: Mastering Complexity Controlling Materials and Chemistries in ultra-small and ultra-fast regimes Complex

New Science: Mastering Complexity Controlling Materials and Chemistries in ultra-small and ultra-fast regimes Complex materials Computer modeling Nanoscience A New Era of Science: Ø Build materials with atom-by-atom chemical precision Ø Predict behavior of new materials Ø Design novel materials and chemistries for specific 11

BESAC Subcommittee on Facing our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science Recommendations:

BESAC Subcommittee on Facing our Energy Challenges in a New Era of Science Recommendations: § Control science with complex functional materials. § Increase the rate of discoveries and establish US leadership in next-generation carbon-free energy technologies. http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes/re ports/files/NSSSEF_rpt. pdf § ‘Dream teams’ of highly educated talent, equipped with forefront tools, and focused on the most pressing challenges § Aggressively recruit the best talent through a series of workforce development. 12

U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science FY 2009 Budget Request Office of

U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science FY 2009 Budget Request Office of Science 13

Basic Energy Sciences The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 BES will invest

Basic Energy Sciences The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 BES will invest $524. 3 million of the ARRA funding for the following six activities: § $150. 0 M to accelerate the civilian construction of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; § $14. 7 M to complete the construction of the User Support Building (USB) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; § $33. 6 M to complete the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) MIE project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; § $25. 0 M for capital equipment replenishment and augmentation at the five BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs); § $24. 0 M for four synchrotron radiation light sources capital equipments, AIP, other upgrades § $277. 0 M for Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs). 14

Basic Energy Sciences FY 2009 Appropriations FY 2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act Division C -

Basic Energy Sciences FY 2009 Appropriations FY 2009 Omnibus Appropriations Act Division C - Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations 2009 “Basic Energy Sciences. —The bill provides. Act, $1, 571, 972, 407 for this program. Within this amount, $17, 000 is provided for the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCo. R). Full funding is provided to support the operations of the major scientific user facilities and the five Nanoscale Science Research Centers, as well as additional instrumentation for the Spallation Neutron Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source. The control level is at the Basic Energy Sciences level. ” Total, BES FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Request Omnibus Bill 1, 269, 902 1, 568, 160 1, 571, 972 Omnibus Bill vs. Enacted +302, 070 Omnibus Bill vs. Request +3, 812 (in thousands) http: //docs. house. gov/rules/omni/jes/divcjes_111_hromni 2009_jes. pdf 15

History of Request vs. Appropriation (FY 08 Constant Dollars)* * Prior to FY 2008

History of Request vs. Appropriation (FY 08 Constant Dollars)* * Prior to FY 2008 Supplemental & FY 2009 Recovery Act Funding 16

FY 2009 BES Budget Omnibus Appropriations Act 2009 § Core research programs §$100 M

FY 2009 BES Budget Omnibus Appropriations Act 2009 § Core research programs §$100 M for Energy Frontier Research Centers §~$55 M for single investigator and small group awards for grand science and energy research (including one-time funding for mid-scale instrumentation and ultrafast science) 34 5 35. 3 MIE GPP §Facility-related research (detectors, optics, etc. ) ~ $10 M SBIR §$17 M for EPSCo. R (vs. request of $8. 24 M) § Scientific user facilities operations MSE Research Light Sources §Full funding for: 339. � Synchrotron light sources 4 CSGB Neutron Research � Neutron scattering facilities Sources � Electron microcharacterization facilities 251. � Nanoscale Science Research Centers 4 101. NSRC § Construction and instrumentation 2 OPC 27 §Full funding for: � National Synchrotron Light Source-II � Linac Coherent Light Source + Linac operations + instruments � Advanced Light Source User Support Building � Spallation Neutron Source instruments Faciliti es 719 Ops Facilities Ops Appropriation $ 1, 572 M MSE Research 273. 3 CSGB Research 239. 5 EFRC 100 SUF Research 20. 4 Construction 145. 5 17

Energy Frontier Research Center Tackling our energy challenges in a new era of science

Energy Frontier Research Center Tackling our energy challenges in a new era of science Engaging the Talents of the Nation’s Researchers for the Broad Energy Sciences: BES announced the initiation of EFRCs to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to create advanced energy technologies for the 21 st century. The EFRCs will pursue the fundamental understanding necessary to meet the global need for abundant, clean, and economical energy. EFRC will pursue collaborative fundamental research that addresses both energy challenges and science grand challenges in areas such as: Solar Energy Utilization Catalysis for Energy Electrical Energy Storage Solid State Lighting Superconductivity § Other Geosciences for Nuclear Waste and CO 2 Storage Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems Combustion of 21 st Century Transportation Fuels Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Use Materials Under Extreme Environments Conversion of Biological Feedstock to Portable Fuels 18

Timeline of the EFRC Solicitation Jan 08 April 08 July 08 Oct 08 Continuing

Timeline of the EFRC Solicitation Jan 08 April 08 July 08 Oct 08 Continuing Resolution through 3/6/09 FY 2008 2/2008 BES rolled -out EFRC in FY 2009 Budget Request & BESAC Jan 09 4/2008 7/2008 10/2008 BES EFRC FOA issued Amended 4/2008 6/2008 9/2008 BES Receive d 251 Letters of Intent BES 261 Full Proposal s Received Conducted Merit Reviews Apr 09 July 09 FY 2009 Awards Announceme nt 19

Single-Investigator & Small-Group Research Single-Investigator and Small-Group Research (SISGR) will significantly enhance the core

Single-Investigator & Small-Group Research Single-Investigator and Small-Group Research (SISGR) will significantly enhance the core research programs in BES and pursue the fundamental understanding necessary to meet the global need for abundant, clean, and economical energy. Awards are planned for three years, with funding in the range of $150300 K/yr for single-investigator awards and $500 -1500 K/yr for smallgroup awards Areas of interest include: Grand challenge science: ultrafast science; chemical imaging, complex & emergent behavior Use inspired discovery science: basic research for electrical energy storage; advanced nuclear energy systems; solar energy utilization; hydrogen production, storage, and use; geological CO 2 sequestration; other basic research areas identified in BESAC and BES workshop reports with an emphasis on nanoscale phenomena Tools for grand challenge science: midscale instrumentation; accelerator and detector research (exclude capital equipment supports) 20

SISGR Solicitation Status 879 Whitepapers; ~ 88% from Universities; 11% DOE Labs; 1% Other

SISGR Solicitation Status 879 Whitepapers; ~ 88% from Universities; 11% DOE Labs; 1% Other Institutions § Electrical Energy Storage § Advanced Nuclear Energy § Hydrogen Research Systems § Solar Energy Utilization Energy Storage § Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide 16% Energy Sources § Solid-state Lighting 31% Grand Science Challenges and Tools 28% § Ultrafast Science § Chemical Imaging § Mid-scale Instrumentation § Complex Systems and Emergent Behavior Energy § Clean and Efficient Efficiency Combustion 10% § Superconductivity Cross-cutting 15% § Catalysis for Energy § Materials under Extreme Environments 21

Timeline of the SISGR Jan 08 April 08 FY 2008 2/2008 4/2008 BES discussed

Timeline of the SISGR Jan 08 April 08 FY 2008 2/2008 4/2008 BES discussed SISGR Plan at BESAC BES issued SISGR web notice July 08 Oct 08 Jan 09 Continuing Resolution through 3/6/09 by 10/2008 BES Received ~ 880 whitepape rs Apr 09 July 09 FY 2009 3/2009 4/2009 6/2009 BES to notify PIs of whitepaper decisions (tentative) Full proposals due to BES (tentative) BES to issue SISGR awards (tentative) 22

SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source “First Light” 23

SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source “First Light” 23

1992: Proposal (Pellegrini), Study Group(Winick) 1994: National Academies Report http: //books. nap. edu/books/NI 000099/html/index.

1992: Proposal (Pellegrini), Study Group(Winick) 1994: National Academies Report http: //books. nap. edu/books/NI 000099/html/index. html 1996: Design Study Group (M. Cornacchia) 1997: BESAC (Birgeneau) Report http: //www. sc. doe. gov/production/bes/BESAC/reports. html 1998: LCLS Design Study Report SLAC-521 1999: BESAC (Leone) Report http: //www. sc. doe. gov/production/bes/BESAC/reports. html $1. 5 M/year, 4 years 2000: LCLS- the First Experiments (Shenoy & Stohr) SLAC-R-611 2001: DOE Critical Decision 0 2002: LCLS Conceptual Design DOE Critical Decision 1 $36 M for Project Engineering Design 2003: DOE Critical Decision 2 A $30 M in 2005 for Long Lead Procurements 2004: DOE 20 -Year Facilities Roadmap 2005: Critical Decision 2 B: Define Project Baseline Critical Decision 3 A: Long-Lead Acquisitions 2006: Critical Decision 3 B: Groundbreaking 2009: First Light 2010: Project Completion 24

Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC Injector (35º) at 2 -km point Existing 1/3

Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC Injector (35º) at 2 -km point Existing 1/3 Linac (1 km) (with modifications) New e- Transfer Line (340 m) X-ray Transport Line (200 m) Undulator (130 m) Near Experiment Hall (underground) X-Ray Transport/Optics/Diagnos Far Experiment Hall (underground) 25

First Experiments Concepts SLAC Report 611 Atomic Physics (LCLS) Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics

First Experiments Concepts SLAC Report 611 Atomic Physics (LCLS) Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (LCLS) 8/2009 Plasma and Warm Dense Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) (OFES? awaiting CD-0) Nanoscale Dynamics in Condensed matter (LUSI) Coherent scattering at the nanoscale (XCS) (LUSI) Structural Studies on Single Particles and Biomolecules Nano-particle and single molecule (non-periodic) imaging (CXI) (LUSI) Femtochemistry Program developed by international team of scientists working with accelerator and laser physics communities Six Instruments (LUSI) Pump/probe diffraction dynamics (XPP) (LUSI) Soft X-Ray Imaging & Spectroscopy (SXR ) (DESY + +MPI+CFEL+Stanford+LBNL) 26

Construction >90% complete 27

Construction >90% complete 27

Office of Basic Energy Sciences Program Web Links: BES page: http: //www. sc. doe.

Office of Basic Energy Sciences Program Web Links: BES page: http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes. html BES Staff Contact: http: //www. sc. doe. gov/besstaff. html Proposal Submission: http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes/grants. html BES Workshop Reports: http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes/reports/list. html EFRC: http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes/EFRC. html SISGR: http: //www. sc. doe. gov/bes/SISGR. html 28

Basic and Applied R&D Coordination How Nature Works … to … Design and Control

Basic and Applied R&D Coordination How Nature Works … to … Design and Control Grand Challenges … to … Technologies for the 21 st Century Discovery and Use-Inspired Basic Research Applied Research Technology Maturation & Deployment How nature works Materials properties and chemical functionalities by design § Controlling materials § Basic research for § Basic research, often § Research with the goal § Scale-up research processes at the level fundamental new with the goal of of meeting technical § At-scale of quantum behavior of understanding on addressing milestones, with demonstration electrons materials or systems showstoppers on realemphasis on the § Cost reduction that may revolutionize world applications in development, § Atom- and energyor transform today’s the energy performance, cost § Prototyping efficient syntheses of energy technologies reduction, and new forms of matter § Manufacturing R&D durability of materials § Development of new with tailored properties § Deployment support and components or on tools, techniques, and § Emergent properties efficient processes facilities, including from complex those for the § Proof of technology correlations of atomic scattering sciences concepts and electronic and for advanced constituents modeling and § Man-made nanoscale computation objects with capabilities rivaling those of living things BESAC & BES Basic Research Needs Workshops § Controlling matter very far away from equilibrium DOE Technology Office/Industry Roadmaps ESAC Grand Challenges Panel 29