Ocean Environments Two Basic Divisions 1 Benthic Zone

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Ocean Environments

Ocean Environments

Two Basic Divisions 1. Benthic Zone – bottom 2. Pelagic Zone - water

Two Basic Divisions 1. Benthic Zone – bottom 2. Pelagic Zone - water

Benthic Zones 1. Intertidal – Shallowest area – Between the low and high tide

Benthic Zones 1. Intertidal – Shallowest area – Between the low and high tide lines – Changing environment

Periwinkle

Periwinkle

Fingernail Limpet

Fingernail Limpet

Barnacle mating Buckshot Barnacles

Barnacle mating Buckshot Barnacles

Gooseneck Barnacles

Gooseneck Barnacles

Mussel with barnacles on it Mussels Mussel with barnacles on it

Mussel with barnacles on it Mussels Mussel with barnacles on it

Sea Urchin Sea star Sea weed Sea anemones – closed above water, open below

Sea Urchin Sea star Sea weed Sea anemones – closed above water, open below water Chiton Seaweed

Benthic Zones • 2. Sublittoral – Always underwater – On continental shelf – Most

Benthic Zones • 2. Sublittoral – Always underwater – On continental shelf – Most variety of benthic life

Sponge with brittle star Coral

Sponge with brittle star Coral

Benthic Zones 3. Bathyal - starts at continental slope and extends to 4000 m

Benthic Zones 3. Bathyal - starts at continental slope and extends to 4000 m - little or no sunlight - cold 4°C - very high pressure Brittle Stars

Crinoids (Sea Lilies)

Crinoids (Sea Lilies)

Sea cucumbers

Sea cucumbers

Benthic Zones 4. Abyssal - No sunlight - 4000 – 6000 m - On

Benthic Zones 4. Abyssal - No sunlight - 4000 – 6000 m - On abyssal plain Tube worms

Benthic Zones 5. Hadal • 6000 m -11, 000 m • Trench Foraminifera

Benthic Zones 5. Hadal • 6000 m -11, 000 m • Trench Foraminifera

Pelagic Zone – water area 1. Neritic § water area above continental shelf 2.

Pelagic Zone – water area 1. Neritic § water area above continental shelf 2. Oceanic § water off of continental shelf § further divided into 5 areas based on depth

 • Oceanic zone is further divided into 5 areas based on depth

• Oceanic zone is further divided into 5 areas based on depth

Neritic Zone Life Seahorse Angel fish Clown fish Bluefin Tuna Jellyfish Herring

Neritic Zone Life Seahorse Angel fish Clown fish Bluefin Tuna Jellyfish Herring

Plankton

Plankton

Oceanic Zones 1. Epipelagic • Surface – 200 meters • Sunlight, warm

Oceanic Zones 1. Epipelagic • Surface – 200 meters • Sunlight, warm

Oceanic Zones Firefly Squid 2. Mesopelagic • twilight zone - some light but no

Oceanic Zones Firefly Squid 2. Mesopelagic • twilight zone - some light but no photosynthesis • 200 – 2000 meters • contains thermocline (large temperature change) • low-energy tissues and sluggish lifestyles to cope with low food energy, since no algae can grow. • Many animals are bioluminescent Cuttlefish

Ogrefish Deep Sea Angler Coelacanth

Ogrefish Deep Sea Angler Coelacanth

Giant Siphonophore

Giant Siphonophore

Bloodbelly Comb Jelly

Bloodbelly Comb Jelly

Pelagic Zones Giant Squid 4. Bathypelagic zone 2, 000 – 4, 000 meters Vampire

Pelagic Zones Giant Squid 4. Bathypelagic zone 2, 000 – 4, 000 meters Vampire Squid

Pelagic Zones Snipe Eel 4. Abyssopelagic zone 4000 – 6000 meters - low oxygen,

Pelagic Zones Snipe Eel 4. Abyssopelagic zone 4000 – 6000 meters - low oxygen, nutrients and food - Dark and cold - Zoarcid Fish

Resources Anderson, Genny (2002). The splash zone. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from http: //www.

Resources Anderson, Genny (2002). The splash zone. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from http: //www. biosbcc. net/ocean/flspl. htm#top Allison, M. , De. Gaetano, A. , & Pasachoff, J. (2006). Earth Science. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Deep Sea. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from Monteray Bay Aquarium Online Field Guide Web site: http: //www. mbayaq. org/efc/living_species/default. asp? hab=9 Flach, Author's first name initial. Els, & Heip, Carlo (1996). Vertical distribution of macrozoobenthos within the sediment on the continental slope of the Globan spur area. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 141, 55 -66. Monsters of the Deep Sea. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from Sea and Sky Web site: http: //www. seasky. org/deep-sea/creatures -menu. html Rager, Nicolle (2004). Sea Vent Viewer. Retrieved August 7, 2008, from Natinal Science Foundation Web site: http: //www. nsf. gov/news/overviews/earth-environ/interact 01. jsp Roach, John (2005, Feb. 3). Life Is Found Thriving at Ocean's Deepest Point. Retrieved August 10, 2008, from National Geographic News Web site: http: //news. nationalgeographic. com/news/2005/02/0203_050203_deepest. html Yancey, Paul (2008). Deep Sea Biology. Retrieved August 7, 2008, Web site: http: //people. whitman. edu/~yancey/deepsea. html Viau, Elizabeth A. (2003). The littoral zone. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from World Builders Web site: http: //curriculum. calstatela. edu/courses/builders/lessons/les 5/littoral. html