OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES

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OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES

OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES

OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES

OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES u Continental margins: * Shelf up to 300 km wide; 150 -200

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES u Continental margins: * Shelf up to 300 km wide; 150 -200 m deep * Slope 20 - 100 km wide; 200 to 2000 m deep (Often furrowed by canyons); Slopes 1 in 40. * Rise up to 300 km wide; 2000 to 5000 m deep (Slopes 1 in 700 to 1 in 1000) * Trench 600 to 11, 000 m deep

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES u There are 26 trenches in the world ocean: · 3 in

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES u There are 26 trenches in the world ocean: · 3 in the Atlantic Ocean · 1 in the Indian Ocean · 22 in the Pacific Ocean u Deep sea basins about 5000 m deep u Abyssal Plains are extremely flat, sediment-filled u Abyssal Hills rise from the plains up to 1000 m u Mid-ocean ridge: Interconnected mountain system up to 400 km wide Rises to 3000 - 1000 m u Central rift valley 20 - 50 km wide cuts 1000 - 3000 m deep into the ridge system

OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES u Seamounts & Trenches are found adjacent & parallel to continents

OCEAN BOTTOM FEATURES u Seamounts & Trenches are found adjacent & parallel to continents & island chains.

u Depths of major trenches u The deepest exceed 18, 000 feet. is the

u Depths of major trenches u The deepest exceed 18, 000 feet. is the Marianas Trench, 35, 810 ft.

u The continental slope gradually rises from the abyssal plains & climbs as much

u The continental slope gradually rises from the abyssal plains & climbs as much as 45 deg as it approaches land. u In some areas the slope is interrupted by broad wedges of sediment deposits called a continental rise.

u The continental shelf, the region from the coastline to the edge of the

u The continental shelf, the region from the coastline to the edge of the continental slope, covers about 8 % of the global seafloor area. u Average width is 40 miles.

u Seamounts are isolated mountains rising from 3, 000 to 10, 000 feet above

u Seamounts are isolated mountains rising from 3, 000 to 10, 000 feet above the surrounding seabed.

u A beach is an expanse of sand or pebbles along a seashore, that

u A beach is an expanse of sand or pebbles along a seashore, that is washed by the tide & waves. u Three zones: Offshore, foreshore and back shore.

u Summer time residents of each zone usually include surfers, waders, & sun bathers.

u Summer time residents of each zone usually include surfers, waders, & sun bathers. u The offshore zone has incoming waves that feel bottom and curl over as breakers or surf.

u Foreshore zone is regularly exposed to high & low tides. u On the

u Foreshore zone is regularly exposed to high & low tides. u On the landward edge of the foreshore is the beach scarp, usually a rise of several feet caused by the eroding action of stronger waves.

u The Backshore zone extends from the water line to the inland area where

u The Backshore zone extends from the water line to the inland area where the sea does not influence vegetation. u The principal feature of the backshore is the berm that marks the ordinary limit of a high tide.

u Most beach sand consists of light-colored quartz and feldspar sand grains, the result

u Most beach sand consists of light-colored quartz and feldspar sand grains, the result of weathering and erosion of rocks such as granite.

u Some beach sand comes directly from shoreline erosion, but much is created by

u Some beach sand comes directly from shoreline erosion, but much is created by the action of rivers flowing to the sea.

u Tropical beaches often consist entirely of shell and coral fragments. u Beaches in

u Tropical beaches often consist entirely of shell and coral fragments. u Beaches in areas of volcanic activity can be black, its sand created by erosion of volcanic rock.