Observational learning observational learning modelling processes in terms

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Observational learning • observational learning (modelling) processes in terms of the role of attention,

Observational learning • observational learning (modelling) processes in terms of the role of attention, reproduction, motivation, reinforcement as informed by Albert Bandura’s social learning theory

Observational learning • Theorist Albert Bandura • Social learning theory – learning which occurs

Observational learning • Theorist Albert Bandura • Social learning theory – learning which occurs within a social context. • Provides information about our environment, thoughts, feelings and behaviours • Importance of observing and modeling (imitating) the behaviours, emotions and attitudes of people around us

 • Referred to as an extension of operant conditioning as we learn through

• Referred to as an extension of operant conditioning as we learn through observing the consequences of others’ behaviours, whether they are reinforced or punished. • Means we watch a model’s actions and watch the consequences (r or p) of those actions • Models we observe and imitate Live – real people Symbolic – real or fictional in the media

According to Bandura, we are more likely to pay attention to a model and

According to Bandura, we are more likely to pay attention to a model and imitate that model if they are: perceived positively or are seen with a high status; are similar in features to us, such as age and sex; if the model is familiar to us and is known through previous observation; if the model’s behaviour is visible and stands out against any other competing models, and if the model exhibits behaviour that can be imitated by the observer.

Attention: individual needs to pay attention to sensory stimuli. Behaviour should be clearly visible.

Attention: individual needs to pay attention to sensory stimuli. Behaviour should be clearly visible. More likely to attend to models that are liked, known, are similar in nature to the observer or have a high status. Retention: Must be able to remember the model’s behaviour Reproduction: learner must be able to reproduce or copy what has been observed Motivation Reinforcement: learner has to be motivated to perform the behaviour in order to receive some form of reinforcement. Behaviour should have a high incentive value for the learner or act as a reward, otherwise it will be unlikely that the behaviour will be carried out. Vicarious learning occurs when an individual learns as a result of someone else’s experiment.

Bandura 1961 • Bandura, Ross and Ross held an experiment in 1961 known as

Bandura 1961 • Bandura, Ross and Ross held an experiment in 1961 known as the “Bobo Doll experiment”. • The aim of this experiment was to investigate different aspects of observational learning shown by young children. These children were required to passively sit and watch a model exhibiting aggressive behaviour, and were then given an opportunity to imitate the model. • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=zer. CK 0 l. Rjp 8

1963 a experiment (imitation of film-mediated aggressive models) • Investigated the influence of different

1963 a experiment (imitation of film-mediated aggressive models) • Investigated the influence of different types of models on the likelihood of children imitating the model’s behaviour. • Interested in the influence on children of the portrayal of aggression through pictorial media such as films, tv and cartoons. Conditions • Real-life model showing aggressive behaviour • Film of the same real-life model behaving aggressively • Cartoon with the cartoon character behaving aggressively • Control group did not observe any model

Mean age range 52 months (4 ½ approx) Results • Confirmed exposure to aggressive

Mean age range 52 months (4 ½ approx) Results • Confirmed exposure to aggressive models increased likelihood that children will behave aggressively on later occasions. • No significant difference between children who viewed real -life models to those who viewed film-mediated models (both film and cartoon) • Only partially supported more remote from reality weaker the tendency to imitate the behaviour. Participants who observed real-life aggression showed more imitative aggression than those who viewed the cartoon

 • No significant difference found between total aggression for participants who were exposed

• No significant difference found between total aggression for participants who were exposed to real-life aggression and cartoon Boys showed significantly more of the following behaviours than girls • • Total aggression Imitative aggression Aggressive gun play Nonimitative aggression

1963 b Study (Vicarious reinforcement and imitative learning) • Interested in the influence of

1963 b Study (Vicarious reinforcement and imitative learning) • Interested in the influence of consequences (reinforcement and punishment) to the model for their behaviour upon children’s subsequent behaviour. • Procedure similar to the previous two experiments • E 1 – Film of aggressive model (rewarded) • E 2 – Film of aggressive model (punished) • C 1 – Film of non-aggressive model (no reward or punishment) • C 2 – No exposure to film or aggressive behaviour

Findings • E 1 (aggression rewarded) showed more imitative aggressive behaviour than E 2

Findings • E 1 (aggression rewarded) showed more imitative aggressive behaviour than E 2 • E 1 showed more aggressive behaviour than all other groups • No significant difference in results of imitative behaviour between E 2, C 1 and C 2 • Boys more aggressive than girls in E 1, C 1 and C 2 (E 2 – no significant difference between boys and girls)

Post study interviews • E 1 and E 2 children interviewed post study •

Post study interviews • E 1 and E 2 children interviewed post study • Aggressive model was chosen by children as the one he/she would choose to emulate (copy) • Reasons given was due to the rewards of aggression the model obtained rather than the desire to imitate the aggression. • Children criticised the aggressive model’s behaviour but still chose to emulate him