OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Ms Suzanne Menezes
Observational Learning We also learn by watching and listening as someone else does something. Through observation, we can acquire new responses without having to personally experience them.
Observational Learning Observational learning occurs when someone uses observation of another person’s actions and their consequences to guide their future actions. The person being observed is referred to as a model Consequently, observational learning is often called modelling (or social learning)
Observational Learning Examples?
Observational Learning Albert Bandura – Canadian Psychologist
Observational Learning Who has heard of the word ‘vicariously’?
Observational Learning Bandura believes that modelling is not a totally separate form of learning from conditioning, and that we can be conditioned vicariously (through watching someone else’s experience). Vicarious conditioning (learning) - Individual watches another person display a behaviour that is reinforced or punished and then behaves in the same way, or refrains from the behaviour based on what they have observed.
Observational Learning Two processes of vicarious conditioning: Vicarious reinforcement - Does reinforcement increase/decrease the likelihood of a behaviour occurring? Vicarious punishment - Does punishment increase/decrease the likelihood of a behaviour occurring?
Observational Learning Two processes of vicarious conditioning: Vicarious reinforcement - Increases the likelihood of the observer behaving in a similar way to the model whose behaviour was reinforced Vicarious punishment - Decreases the likelihood of an observer performing a particular behaviour which was observed as being punished
Observational Learning The processes of observational learning: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation 5. Reinforcement
Observational Learning Attention - In order to learn via observation, we must pay attention to the model’s behaviour and its consequences - Attention can be influenced by characteristics of the observer such as perceptual and cognitive capabilities. - It can also be influenced by characteristics of the event, e. g. the presence of distracters
Observational Learning n Attention - Cognitive aspect may be influenced by n motivation and level of interest n perceptual abilities n situation n distracters present n characteristics of the model, such as attractiveness n more likely to imitate if n model is perceived positive, is liked and has high status n perceived similarities (same sex, age etc) n model is familiar to the observer n model’s behaviour is visible and stands out against ‘competing models’ n model is demonstrating behaviour that the observer perceives themselves as being able to imitate
Observational Learning Retention (in memory) - The learnt behaviour must be stored in memory as a mental representation (understanding of what to do in the mind of the learner) - This is a cognitive aspect of observational learning because the memory must be stored and later retrieved to reproduce the behaviour.
Observational Learning Reproduction (of the behaviour) - The learner must have the physical and intellectual ability to convert these mental representations into actions. - e. g. you can’t imitate riding a bike if you can’t walk
Observational Learning Motivation - The learner must want to imitate the learnt behaviour. - This will depend on whether the learner believes that there will be a desirable consequence (reinforcement) for reproducing the learnt behaviour.
Observational Learning Reinforcement - When there is the prospect of a positive result for imitating the behaviour (i. e. a reward for the learner), it is likely that the learner will do so. - In contrast, if there is a prospect of punishment for reproducing the learnt behaviour, it is less likely that the behaviour will be imitated. - The expectation of reinforcement or punishment influences the cognitive processes of the observer and this affects how well the learner pays attention to and retains the memory of the model’s behaviour.
Observational Learning Reinforcement for imitating the model’s behaviour can come from several sources: - External reinforcement, e. g. a parent praises the child for imitating their behaviour - Vicarious reinforcement, i. e. observing the modelled behaviour being reinforced without personally experiencing the reinforcement - Self reinforcement, i. e. when we are reinforced by meeting certain standards of performance we have set for ourselves
Observational Learning Example: a child learning to make pancakes from a parent Process of observational learning Attention Retention (in memory) Reproduction (of the behaviour) Motivation Reinforcement A child learning to make pancakes from a parent
Observational Learning Example: a child learning to make pancakes from a parent Process of observational learning A child learning to make pancakes from a parent Attention child concentrates on the parent making pancakes Retention (in memory) child remembering the ingredients and procedure for making pancakes Reproduction (of the behaviour) child being old enough to be able to use the necessary kitchen equipment Motivation the child wanting to be able to make pancakes Reinforcement praise being given for making the pancakes, or personal pleasure from eating the pancakes
Observational Learning Bandura’s research: - In the 1960 s Albert Bandura conducted a series of experiments investigating different aspects of observational learning by young children - In a typical experiment, children were required to passively sit and watch a model engaging in aggressive behaviour, and then given an opportunity to imitate the model - Four separate experiments were conducted (1961, 1963 a, 1963 b and 1965).
Activity https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=eq. Na. Ler. MN OE http: //abavtooldev. pearsoncmg. com/sbx_videopl ayer_v 2/simpleviewer. php? project. ID=MPL&clip. I D=bobo_doll. flv&ui=2 Complete the flowchart for Bandura’s 1965 study