Nutritional Diets Food Allergy and Diabetes Diets Food

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Nutritional Diets Food Allergy and Diabetes Diets

Nutritional Diets Food Allergy and Diabetes Diets

Food Allergy - Terminology • Food intolerance or adverse food reactions account for 1

Food Allergy - Terminology • Food intolerance or adverse food reactions account for 1 to 6% of all dermatoses in general practice. No immunological reaction • Food allergy constitutes 10 to 49% of allergic responses in dogs and cats

Food Allergy - MOA • Food allergy and food hypersensitivity: 3 rd after atopy

Food Allergy - MOA • Food allergy and food hypersensitivity: 3 rd after atopy and FAD – Immune mediated • Type I hypersensitivity Ig. E binds with the antigen > mast cells to release chemicals • Type III hypersensitivity: GI signs

Food Allergy – Clinical Signs • Canines: – Intense Pruritus (nonseasonal): feet, axillae, inguinal

Food Allergy – Clinical Signs • Canines: – Intense Pruritus (nonseasonal): feet, axillae, inguinal – Alopecia – Lichenification, hyperpigmentation – Blepharitis – Urticaria – Chronic otitis externa – Peri-ocular dermatitis, Pododermatitis, anal sacculitis – Few have vomiting and diarrhea

Food Allergy Hyperpigmentation Lichenification: Dff: All chronic and pruritic skin diseases

Food Allergy Hyperpigmentation Lichenification: Dff: All chronic and pruritic skin diseases

Otitis externa

Otitis externa

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

Food Allergy – Clinical Signs – Felines – Intense Pruritus (nonseasonal): head and neck

Food Allergy – Clinical Signs – Felines – Intense Pruritus (nonseasonal): head and neck – Alopecia – Miliary dermatitis – Ulcerative dermatitis – Many have vomiting and diarrhea

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

Food Allergy

Food Allergy - Allergen • Protein: 18 -36, 000 Dalton's average molecular weight •

Food Allergy - Allergen • Protein: 18 -36, 000 Dalton's average molecular weight • Proteins, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, polypeptides • Canine: Beef, dairy products, soy, chicken • Feline: Beef, dairy products, soy, fish

Food Allergy - Diets • Protein: Novel or hydrolyzed – fish, rabbit, lamb, venison

Food Allergy - Diets • Protein: Novel or hydrolyzed – fish, rabbit, lamb, venison • Carbohydrate: Single easily digestible – rice, potatoes, barley, oats • Fats – Omega 3 and 6 • Vitamins – A and E • Minerals – Zn

Food Allergy - Diagnosis • FOOD ELIMINATION TRIAL • The patient is fed a

Food Allergy - Diagnosis • FOOD ELIMINATION TRIAL • The patient is fed a hypoallergenic diet for 6090 days. • This allows the body to become desensitized to the offending allergens. • When the previous diet is fed back to the pet, an acute hypersensitivity reaction may occur. • This helps to identify that a food was the source of the allergic signs

Food allergy – Diets available Royal Canin • -Hypoallergenic HP – hydrolyzed protein •

Food allergy – Diets available Royal Canin • -Hypoallergenic HP – hydrolyzed protein • -Sensitivity RC – novel foods • -Sensitivity LR – novel foods • -Skin Support SS – novel food • -Potato and Duck – novel food • -Potato and Rabbit – novel food • -Potato and Whitefish – novel food • -Potato and Venison – novel food Hills • -d/d Duck – single novel protein • -d/d Lamb – single novel protein • -d/d Potato and Duck – single novel protein • -d/d Potato and Salmon – single novel protein • -d/d Potato and Venison – single novel protein • -d/d Rice and Egg – single novel protein • -d/d Salmon – single novel protein • -d/d Venison – single novel protein • -z/d low allergen – hydrolyzed protein • -z-d Ultra allergen free – hydrolyzed protein

Food Allergy – Novel Proteins – Novel proteins • Hills d/d

Food Allergy – Novel Proteins – Novel proteins • Hills d/d

Food Allergy – Novel Proteins Fish and Potato

Food Allergy – Novel Proteins Fish and Potato

Food Allergy – Hydrolyzed Proteins • Z/D: Less than 18, 000 dalton • Ultra

Food Allergy – Hydrolyzed Proteins • Z/D: Less than 18, 000 dalton • Ultra z/d: less than 3, 000 dalton Hydrolyzed chicken

Food allergy: Challenging

Food allergy: Challenging

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus - MOA

Diabetes Mellitus - MOA

Diabetes Mellitus • Definition: Disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused by an

Diabetes Mellitus • Definition: Disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused by an absolute or relative insulin deficiency • Type I – Insulin Dependent DM – very low or absent insulin secretory ability • Type II – Non insulin dependent DM (insulin insensitivity) – inadequate or delayed insulin secretion relative to the needs of the patient – More common in cats

Diabetes Mellitus • Signalment: older patients, obese, top 3 disease in older cats •

Diabetes Mellitus • Signalment: older patients, obese, top 3 disease in older cats • Clinical signs: polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loose, cataracts – dogs, Plantigrade stance (neuropathy) - cats

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus • Diagnosis – Chemistry screen: hyperglycemia – Urinalysis: glycosuria

Diabetes Mellitus • Diagnosis – Chemistry screen: hyperglycemia – Urinalysis: glycosuria

Diabetes Mellitus • Treatment options – Insulin – Oral hypoglycemic drugs – Dietary management

Diabetes Mellitus • Treatment options – Insulin – Oral hypoglycemic drugs – Dietary management • Frequent meals

Diabetes Mellitus • Dietary GOALS – Stabilize blood glucose levels – Minimize postprandial hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus • Dietary GOALS – Stabilize blood glucose levels – Minimize postprandial hyperglycemia – Prevent hypoglycemia – Prevent or delay long term effects of the disease – Achieve and maintain an ideal body condition

Diabetes Mellitus - Dogs • Carbohydrate – Complex – Fiber: High • Slows digestion,

Diabetes Mellitus - Dogs • Carbohydrate – Complex – Fiber: High • Slows digestion, reduces the post-prandial glucose spike, promotes weight loss, reduces risk of pancreatitis – Vitamin E – Hill’s R/D or W/D

Diabetes Mellitus - Cats • Protein: high • Carbohydrate: Low – Cats use protein

Diabetes Mellitus - Cats • Protein: high • Carbohydrate: Low – Cats use protein as their primary source of energy – blood glucose is maintained primarily through liver metabolism of fats and proteins • Purina DM, Hill’s M/D • Often a diet change in cats can dramatically reduce or eliminate the need for insulin • this is particularly true for type II

References • Miss Huff’s personal notes • http: //www. veterinarypartner. com/Content. plx? P=A&A=652 •

References • Miss Huff’s personal notes • http: //www. veterinarypartner. com/Content. plx? P=A&A=652 • http: //www. ansc. purdue. edu/swineclass/PDF/Companion%2 0 Animal%20 Nutrition_1. pdf • Won-Seok Oh, DVM, Ph. D, Nutrition and Canine Skin Barrier, World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2011 • Case, L. et. al. 2000. 2 nd edition. Canine and Feline Nutrition • Dr. Ralf S. Mueller, Dermatology for the Small Animal Practitioner