- Slides: 10
nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information • Contain the following elements: C, H, N, O, P • Two types of nucleic acids: • 1. DNA 2. RNA
1. DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid • “encodes the instructions”(genetic code) for the specific amino acid sequence of a protein • is copied and passed from one generation of cells to another (condensed DNA = chromosome) • Eukaryotes- nucleus • Prokaryotes- cytoplasm
2. RNA = Ribonucleic acid • functions in the actual synthesis of proteins coded for by DNA m. RNA
• m. RNA carries the encoded information to the ribosomes; t. RNA carries the amino acids to the ribosome; & r. RNA is a major component of ribosomes DNA ==> RNA ==> Protein
Structure of Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids are macromolecules built of monomers called NUCLEOTIDES
Each nucleotide consists of: 1. 5 -carbon sugar: -deoxyribose in DNA -ribose in RNA 2. Phosphate group (attached to #5 carbon on sugar) 3. Nitrogenous base – purines (double ring; A & G) – pyrimidines (single ring; C, T & U)
• nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester linkages (between phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next) • this results in a backbone with a repeating pattern of: sugarphosphate-sugar-phosphate. . .