- Slides: 13
Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids are polimers of specific nucleotides. • The nucleic acids are two different types. 1) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and 2) Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acid are • the chemical link between generations • the source of genetic information in chromosomes • molecules that store information for cellular growth and reproduction
Functions of Nucleic Acids • Nucleic Acids dictate amino-acid sequence in proteins. • Nucleic Acids give information to chromosomes, which is then passed from parent to offspring.
Nucleotides n n Nucleotides have a distinctive structure composed of three companent covalently bound together: α nitrogen containing ‘‘base’’ – either a pyrimidine or purine α 5 -carbon sugar – ribose or deoxyribose α phosphate group.
Nucleoside • Nucleoside is a sugar-base compound. • A nucleotide without a phosphate group is called nucleoside.
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid n n n DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. Chromosomes are made of DNA, DNA carries the genetic code and transmits genetic information from one generation to the next.
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid n n n Involved in the transcription/translation of genetic material (DNA) RNA is formed from DNA; is responsible for the protein synthesis and transmission of genetic information. It is very essential in the formation of proteins stored in the ribosomes of a cell. There are three different types of ribonucleic acid: t. RNA, m. RNA, and r. RNA.
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid Messenger RNA (m. RNA) n Its sequence is copied from genetic DNA n It travels to ribsosomes, small granular particles in the cytoplasm of a cell where protein synthesis takes place.
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid Ribosomal RNA (r. RNA) n Ribosomes are a complex of proteins and r. RNA n The synthesis of proteins from amino acids and ATP occurs in the ribosome n The r. RNA provides both structure and catalysis
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid Transfer RNA (t. RNA) n Transports amino acids to the ribosomes where they are joined together to make proteins n There is a specific t. RNA for each amino acid n Recognition of the t. RNA at the anti-codon communicates which amino acid is attached
Comparison of DNA and RNA DNA RNA Phosphate Deoxyribose (Sugar) Ribose (Sugar) Guanine (Purine base) Adenine (Purine base) Cytosine (Pyrimidine base) Thymine (Pyrimidine base) Uracil (Pyrimidine base)
Names of Nucleosides and Nucleotides