Now you see it Now you dont Intro

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Now you see it - Now you don’t Intro to Game AI

Now you see it - Now you don’t Intro to Game AI

Book Learnin’ l University of Chicago – – l BA in General Studies Masters

Book Learnin’ l University of Chicago – – l BA in General Studies Masters work in AI & Information Systems Northwestern University – Ph. D work in AI: Robotics & Video Games

Street Smarts l l l Game Design and Tuning Workshop Indie Game Jam/Experimental Gameplay

Street Smarts l l l Game Design and Tuning Workshop Indie Game Jam/Experimental Gameplay Workshop IGDA Education Committee . . . and kickin’ it with developers, in general

What is AI? Some terms

What is AI? Some terms

AI is. . . l l l a philosophy an abstraction a tool

AI is. . . l l l a philosophy an abstraction a tool

Philosophy l People do things based on rough goals and sketchy plans – modifying

Philosophy l People do things based on rough goals and sketchy plans – modifying their behavior when problems or opportunities arise.

Abstraction

Abstraction

Tool: Finite State Machine start end

Tool: Finite State Machine start end

Tool: Planner state goal

Tool: Planner state goal

Tool: Agents

Tool: Agents

What is Game AI? Some Context

What is Game AI? Some Context

Environment l l l Big projects, getting bigger Dynamic worlds/systems Time is still an

Environment l l l Big projects, getting bigger Dynamic worlds/systems Time is still an issue

Problems l l Pathfinding Sensing Reacting Expressing

Problems l l Pathfinding Sensing Reacting Expressing

People l l l Programmers Designers Players

People l l l Programmers Designers Players

Goals: Programmers l l Intelligent, coherent, reactive behavior Consistent, accurate sensing

Goals: Programmers l l Intelligent, coherent, reactive behavior Consistent, accurate sensing

Goals: Designers l l Extensible, flexible code Intuitive interface

Goals: Designers l l Extensible, flexible code Intuitive interface

Goals: Players l l l Coherent Believable Entertaining! Fortress of Solitude: “If they worked

Goals: Players l l l Coherent Believable Entertaining! Fortress of Solitude: “If they worked properly, they’d be tools - not toys”

Currently l Slow progress on – – l sensing reacting Problems crop up in

Currently l Slow progress on – – l sensing reacting Problems crop up in – – code interface

State of the Art Game AI Today

State of the Art Game AI Today

State of Game AI? l “State machines and hierarchical AIs. The simple rules-based finite-

State of Game AI? l “State machines and hierarchical AIs. The simple rules-based finite- and fuzzy-state machines (FSMs and Fu. SMs) continue to be the tools of choice for developers, overshadowing more "academic" technologies such as neural networks and genetic algorithms. ” – Woodcock 2001

Finite State Machines l Systems, Sub-systems and Sub-Sub systems – – Proliferation of nodes

Finite State Machines l Systems, Sub-systems and Sub-Sub systems – – Proliferation of nodes = slower code Changes in Agent design = chaos Schizophrenic behavior = common Difficult to debug

Rule-Based Systems l Special Cases made easy – – – Scripting can be tedious

Rule-Based Systems l Special Cases made easy – – – Scripting can be tedious Debugging can be difficult Flexibility? Extensibility?

Hierarchical AI l Commanders, Middlemen, Drones – Lots of reasoning Lots of inter-level communication

Hierarchical AI l Commanders, Middlemen, Drones – Lots of reasoning Lots of inter-level communication What does the user see? – Best in strategy contexts? – –

Other approaches? l Black and White, Creatures, The Sims – – Neural Net Learning/Reinforcement

Other approaches? l Black and White, Creatures, The Sims – – Neural Net Learning/Reinforcement Transparency? (why? ) Transitions? (how? )

Other approaches? l Thief I & II – – Complex Sensing Brooksian, Distributed AI

Other approaches? l Thief I & II – – Complex Sensing Brooksian, Distributed AI Scalability? (how many brains? ) Intuitiveness? (which brain? )

More Recently l Optimizations – l Blackboard Systems (NOLF 2) Broadening scope – –

More Recently l Optimizations – l Blackboard Systems (NOLF 2) Broadening scope – – Diagnostics (DX 2) Expressive Characters (HL 2) l Paul Eckman

Recent Issues l New systems and genres introduce new problems. . . – –

Recent Issues l New systems and genres introduce new problems. . . – – – Dynamic Path Planning Strategic Team-based AI Massively-Multiplayer AI

Next-Generation AI? l l Will new technology engender new and improved techniques? Will new

Next-Generation AI? l l Will new technology engender new and improved techniques? Will new problems have clear, simple solutions?

What about Middleware? Game AI In a Box?

What about Middleware? Game AI In a Box?

Middleware l Animation & Locomotion Control

Middleware l Animation & Locomotion Control

Middleware l Behavior Control Systems

Middleware l Behavior Control Systems

Middleware l Structural Organization/Interface

Middleware l Structural Organization/Interface

Middleware

Middleware

Middleware l l Hard to get developers to use it Not clear what value

Middleware l l Hard to get developers to use it Not clear what value it provides – – l are they the right abstractions? will the tools be flexible enough? AI seems specific to game genre/content

Looking Forward Juicy AI Problems

Looking Forward Juicy AI Problems

Dynamic Game Adjustment l l Difficulty Pacing Story Characters – The future looks. .

Dynamic Game Adjustment l l Difficulty Pacing Story Characters – The future looks. . . complicated!

Natural Language Generation l l l Context-aware conversations Common-sense responses Dynamic phrase generation

Natural Language Generation l l l Context-aware conversations Common-sense responses Dynamic phrase generation

Expressive Characters l l l Memory Feelings Independent goals

Expressive Characters l l l Memory Feelings Independent goals

Persistence l Character Changes, World Changes – Chess Examples

Persistence l Character Changes, World Changes – Chess Examples

Persistence “There are no character classes in Project Ego, only personality styles that evolve

Persistence “There are no character classes in Project Ego, only personality styles that evolve according to the decisions you make. Your character will age as time progresses, and the actions you take put an idiosyncratic spin on his or her appearance. Early wounds will show up later as scars. Lethargy will manifest as a little extra blubber around your middle, and anaerobic exercise will show up in the form of Olympian muscles. Even more important than your looks, your reputation will depend on the kind of life you lead. The incredible freedom of gameplay allows you to pursue every occupation from dashing hero to indolent bum to mischievous cutpurse. ”

How would you build “Fable”? l l l Persistent beliefs about the main character

How would you build “Fable”? l l l Persistent beliefs about the main character Clear presentation of change/progress Characters that remember events Gossip? Grudges?

Wrapping up What we covered. . .

Wrapping up What we covered. . .

Game AI Then l l Big talk up to about 2001 Plenty of proposed

Game AI Then l l Big talk up to about 2001 Plenty of proposed ideas tanked/ignored – – Republic Black & White

Game AI Now l l Gamasutra/Game Developer AI Programming Wisdom

Game AI Now l l Gamasutra/Game Developer AI Programming Wisdom

Game AI Tomorrow l l l Look to next round of games for ideas?

Game AI Tomorrow l l l Look to next round of games for ideas? AI ‘ 04 – workshop in the works GDC ’ 04 – hopefully some tidbits

Contact hunicke@cs. northwestern. edu

Contact [email protected] northwestern. edu