Notes Chapter 5 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Focus

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Notes Chapter 5: Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Focus Questions: What factors influence earth’s climate?

Notes Chapter 5: Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Focus Questions: What factors influence earth’s climate? How does climate determine where the earth’s major biomes are found? What are the major types of desert biomes? What are the major types of grassland biomes? What are the major types of forest and mountain biomes? How have human activities affected, the world’s desert, grassland, forest, and

Case Study Blowing in the Wind: A Story of Connections Wind Vital part of

Case Study Blowing in the Wind: A Story of Connections Wind Vital part of planet’s circulatory system Distributes heat l Transports heat (P and Fe in dust) l Bad News Dust storms in Sahara increased 5 to 10 fold since 1950. l Climate change and overgrazing

SUV connection Transports viruses, bacteria, fungi, and particles of long-lived pesticides and toxic metals.

SUV connection Transports viruses, bacteria, fungi, and particles of long-lived pesticides and toxic metals. More bad news Some agents (perhaps fungi) may be killing corals, FL Keys and Caribbean Increase in asthma in Caribbean since 1973 Fe rich dust may trigger harmful algal blooms, FL Pollution and dust form China and C. Asia blows across Pacific Ocean

Mixed News Particles from volcanic eruptions decrease global temp. Add trace elements to soil.

Mixed News Particles from volcanic eruptions decrease global temp. Add trace elements to soil. Familiar Lesson No away Everything is connected Wind: circulates heat, moisture, plant nutrients, long-lived air pollutants, and soil particles Global air circulation patterns influence climate; climate influences plants and animals found in biomes.

I. Climate: A Brief Introduction Weather – temp. , precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud

I. Climate: A Brief Introduction Weather – temp. , precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and physical conditions over hours or days (see Suppl. 10). Climate – region’s general weather patterns over a long period of time. Average temperature and precipitation Latitude and elevation

Earth’s Major Climate Zones (Fig. 5 -2) Back to Ocean Currents

Earth’s Major Climate Zones (Fig. 5 -2) Back to Ocean Currents

Solar Energy and Global Air Circulation: Distributing Heat Factors that contribute to local climate:

Solar Energy and Global Air Circulation: Distributing Heat Factors that contribute to local climate: Amount of solar radiation l Motion of the earth – rotation and revolution l Air circulation patterns l Distribution of land masses and seas l Ocean currents l Elevation of land masses l

Four factors that determine global circulation patterns. Uneven heating of the earth’s surface l

Four factors that determine global circulation patterns. Uneven heating of the earth’s surface l Seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation (Fig. 5 -3) l Rotation of earth on its axis l • Coriolis effect (animation) • Cells – air movement in huge regions (Fig. 5 -4) – Prevailing winds Coriolis Web Animation http: //www. wiley. com/college/strahler/0471480533/animations/ch 07_animations/animation 2. html

l Properties of air, water, and land • Cyclical convection cells circulate air, heat,

l Properties of air, water, and land • Cyclical convection cells circulate air, heat, and moisture vertically (Fig. 5 -5). – Six giant cells, 3 in N hemisphere and 3 in S (Fig. 5 -6) – Leads to irregular distribution of climate patterns and vegetation (or biomes).

Ocean Currents: Distributing Heat and Nutrients Ocean currents affect climate of regions (Fig. 5

Ocean Currents: Distributing Heat and Nutrients Ocean currents affect climate of regions (Fig. 5 -2) Ocean absorbs heat, bulk near equator l l Temperature differences influence vertical movements Temperature and winds influence horizontal movements. Distributes heat Distributes nutrients – upwellings (see Fig. 5 -2 and Suppl. 10) Mix Water l l Nutrients Oxygen

Atmospheric Gases and Climate: The Natural Greenhouse Effect Certain gases regulate earth’s average temp.

Atmospheric Gases and Climate: The Natural Greenhouse Effect Certain gases regulate earth’s average temp. l CO 2, CH 4, H 2 O, and N 2 O Greenhouse gases cause greenhouse effect (Fig. 5 -7). Human activities increasing greenhouse effect l Evidence and climate models indicate anthropogenic climate change. • • Alter precipitation Shift areas where crops can grow Raise sea levels Change where plants and animals live (or cause extinctions)

Topography and Local Climate: Land Matters Large bodies of water moderate climate of nearby

Topography and Local Climate: Land Matters Large bodies of water moderate climate of nearby lands l Sea breezes Rainshadow effect (Fig. 5 -8) Monsoons – heavy rains experienced by land masses lying north and south of warm oceans. l l Alternating wet and dry seasons Heating of land low pressure draws moisture from warm ocean Microclimates of cities – warmer than surrounding countryside. l Haze, smog, higher temp, lower wind speed

II. Biomes: Climate and Life on Land Why Do Different Organisms Live in Different

II. Biomes: Climate and Life on Land Why Do Different Organisms Live in Different Places? Difference in climate different organisms, esp. plants. Biomes – large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants, and animals. l Locations of biomes have shifted solar output, emissions from volcanic eruptions, and continental drift. • 5000 y. a. Sahara Desert was a fertile grassland • 15000 y. a. arid American SW was rainy and had many lakes.

l Influence of humans? Major factors that determine type of biome (Fig. 3 -10):

l Influence of humans? Major factors that determine type of biome (Fig. 3 -10): Average annual precipitation l Average annual temperature l Soil type l Biomes are not uniform Communities vary, but have unique attributes l Patchiness resources not uniformly distributed and humans remove or alter vegetation. l Climate and vegetation vary similarly with latitude and elevation (Fig. 5 -11).

III. Desert Biomes Deserts: Tropical, Temperate, and Polar. General Attributes Evaporation exceeds precipitation; annual

III. Desert Biomes Deserts: Tropical, Temperate, and Polar. General Attributes Evaporation exceeds precipitation; annual precipitation is low and scattered unevenly throughout year. l Cover 30% of land surface, mostly subtropical and tropical regions. l Largest in interior of continents, other local due to rainshadow effect. l Little water in atmosphere, vegetation, and ground broad temperature swings between night and daytime. l

Low rainfall and different average temperatures determine type: l Tropical desert (Fig. 5 -12

Low rainfall and different average temperatures determine type: l Tropical desert (Fig. 5 -12 a) – like Sahara and Namib of Africa • Hot and dry most of year • Few plants • Hard wind blown surface w/ rock and sand. l Temperate desert (Fig. 5 -12 b) – like Mojave and Chihuahuan in American SW. • Daytime temperatures in summer are high and low in winter. • More precipitation than in tropical deserts • Sparse vegetation, mostly shrubs, cacti, and succulent adapted to low water availability and temperature variation.

l Polar Desert (Fig. 5 -12 c) – Gobi in China • Winters, cold;

l Polar Desert (Fig. 5 -12 c) – Gobi in China • Winters, cold; summers warm or hot • Precipitation is low How do desert plants and animals survive? General strategies l l Adaptive strategies to reduce thermal stress Conserve water Desert plants l l Drop leaves, as in mesquite and creosote Succulent plants • • No or reduced leaves Store water and synthesize food in fleshy tissue Open stomata only at night Spines guard from being eaten by herbivores

Deep taproots as in mesquite l Widely spread, shallow roots to collect water when

Deep taproots as in mesquite l Widely spread, shallow roots to collect water when available. l Evergreens have waxy cuticle l Annuals, grasses and wildflowers store much biomass as dormant seed for next rainfall. l Desert Animals Small, nocturnal (hiding in burrows or rocky crevices during day). l Aestivation l Concentrate urine l Thick cuticles in insects and reptiles l Water in food and metabolic water l

Desert ecosystems are fragile (Fig. 5 -13). l Soils take a long time to

Desert ecosystems are fragile (Fig. 5 -13). l Soils take a long time to recover. Why? • • Slow plant growth Low species diversity Slow nutrient cycling Lack of water

IV. Grasslands and Chaparral Biomes Types of Grasslands, or prairies, occur mostly in the

IV. Grasslands and Chaparral Biomes Types of Grasslands, or prairies, occur mostly in the interiors of continents too moist for deserts and too dry forests. Reason for occurrence Seasonal drought l Grazing by large herbivores l Occasional fires l Three types of grasslands: tropical, temperate, and polar (tundra) l Results form combinations of low precipitation and

Tropical Grasslands: Savannas (Fig. 514 a) Savanna – tropical grassland w/ scattered clumped trees

Tropical Grasslands: Savannas (Fig. 514 a) Savanna – tropical grassland w/ scattered clumped trees such as acacia. Usu. Warm year-round w/ alternating wet and dry seasons (graph). l Lightning and heavy grazing inhibit growth of trees and shrubs. l It’s the birthplace of mankind l In dry locations of Africa, Australia, India, and S. A. l

Fauna l Farsighted, swift, and stealthy • Examples: East Africa’s grazers and browsers (gazelles,

Fauna l Farsighted, swift, and stealthy • Examples: East Africa’s grazers and browsers (gazelles, zebras, giraffes, and antelope) and their predators (lions, hyenas, and humans). Large herds migrate to find food and water. l Large herbivores have evolved specialized diets to minimize competition. l • • Giraffes eat leaves and shoots from tree tops. Elephants eat leaves and branches from lower tree parts. Wildebeests prefer short grass. Zebra graze on longer grasses and stems.

Flora adapted to survive drought and extreme heat and cold. l Deep roots that

Flora adapted to survive drought and extreme heat and cold. l Deep roots that can tap into ground water. Savannas in Africa have rapidly growing human populations Rapid conversion to rangeland for cattle l Overgrazing by domesticated grazers and use of trees for firewood savanna to desert. l

Temperate Grasslands: Fertile Soils (Fig. 5 -15) Once covered vast expanses of plains and

Temperate Grasslands: Fertile Soils (Fig. 5 -15) Once covered vast expanses of plains and gently rolling hills in the interiors of NA, SA, Europe, and Asia (Fig. 5 -14 b). NA prairies l Steppes of Eurasia l Pampas of SA l Winters, bitterly cold; summers, hot and dry; precipitation is fairly sparse (graph). Drought and occasional fires inhibit growth of

Above ground grass shoots die producing fertile soils. Top soil is held in place

Above ground grass shoots die producing fertile soils. Top soil is held in place by thick network of intertwined roots. What effect does plowing have? l Native grasses, adapted to fires. l Temperate grasslands once covered large areas of earth. l Fertile soil used for crops (Fig. 5 -16), cattle, and suburban- and urbanization.

Polar Grasslands: Arctic Tundra Most of year, treeless plains are bitterly cold, swept by

Polar Grasslands: Arctic Tundra Most of year, treeless plains are bitterly cold, swept by frigid winds, and covered with ice and snow. Precipitation is scant and mostly in form of snow. l Sometimes referred to as polar desert (Fig. 5 -14 c). Flora l Thick spongy mat of low-growing plants • • l Grasses Moses Lichens Dwarf shrubs Most growth occurs during 6 -8 wk summer (Fig. 5 -17).

Permafrost – underground soil in which captured water stays frozen for more than two

Permafrost – underground soil in which captured water stays frozen for more than two consecutive. l During brief summer the permafrost layer keeps the melted snow and ice from soaking into the ground. • Waterlogged tundra forms large number of shallow lakes, marshes, bogs, ponds, and seasonal wetlands. • Abundant “sqeeters” and other insects serve as food for migrating birds. Fauna l Adaptations such as thick fur (wolf, arctic fox, musk oxen), feathers (snowy owl), and arctic lemmings.

Global warming melting permafrost release of CH 4 from soil. Fragile because of short

Global warming melting permafrost release of CH 4 from soil. Fragile because of short growing season long time for tundra soil to recover. l Oil drilling, pipelines, mines, and military bases leave scars that persist for centuries. Alpine tundra – occur between snowline and treeline. Vegetation similar, but more sunlight and no permafrost. l During brief summer alpine tundra can be covered w/ wildflowers. l

Temperate Shrublands: Chaparral (Fig. 5 -18) Coastal areas on land that borders deserts longer

Temperate Shrublands: Chaparral (Fig. 5 -18) Coastal areas on land that borders deserts longer winter rainy season than nearby desert. l Fogs during spring and fall reduce evaporation. Geography: S. CA, USA; Mediterranean; C Chile; S Australia; and SW Africa Flora l l Dense growth Low-growing evergreen shrubs and occasional small trees w/ leathery leaves (reduces evaporation)

Fauna Mule deer l Chipmunks l Jackrabbits l Lizards l Various birds l Long,

Fauna Mule deer l Chipmunks l Jackrabbits l Lizards l Various birds l Long, warm and dry summer highly flammable veg. l Fire resistant root and seed that need to be heated to germinate. Big ecological footprint – folks like homes in nice climate

V. Forest Biomes Forest biomes Moderate to high precipitation Trees, shrubs, and herbs Three

V. Forest Biomes Forest biomes Moderate to high precipitation Trees, shrubs, and herbs Three types result from combinations of amount of precipitation and average temperatures. Tropical forests l Temperate forests l Polar (or boreal) forests l

Tropical Rainforests: Threatened Centers of Biodiversity with Poor Soils (Fig. 5 -20) Description Near

Tropical Rainforests: Threatened Centers of Biodiversity with Poor Soils (Fig. 5 -20) Description Near equator l Uniformly warm temperatures year-round (Fig. 5 -19 a) l High humidity l Heavy rainfall almost daily l High biodiversity l

Biota l l l l l 2% of the earth’s surface, but an estimated

Biota l l l l l 2% of the earth’s surface, but an estimated half of the planet’s terrestrial species. Dominated by lush broadleaf evergreen plants No single tree dominates Trees huge w/ shallow roots and wide bases (buttresses) Tree tops form a dense canopy Low light intensity on forest floor. Ground level w/ little vegetation, but those plants found on bottom have enormous leaves Vines reach tree tops and form bridges between trees Stratification of specialized plant and animal niches (Fig. 521) Much of the animal life including insects, bats, and birds live in the sunny canopy layer abundant shelter, leaves,

Ecosystem Dynamics High NPP l Little wind so plants rely on pollinators and seed

Ecosystem Dynamics High NPP l Little wind so plants rely on pollinators and seed dispersion by animals l Decomposition of dead organic matter is rapid l Nutrients rapidly taken up and stored in plants low nutrients in soil l

Conservation l At least 40% of rainforests have been cleared for logging, crops, grazing,

Conservation l At least 40% of rainforests have been cleared for logging, crops, grazing, and mineral extraction. • Rate is increasing • Reduces biodiversity and accelerates global warming l Clear for crop or grazing results in: • Only a year or two of crops • Few nutrients in soil, leached during heavy rains. • Areas become shrublands

Tropical Dry Forests Warm temperatures and wet and dry season l Trees height lower

Tropical Dry Forests Warm temperatures and wet and dry season l Trees height lower and canopies less dense l Much have been cleared for grazing and growing cops l Heavy rains cause severe erosion few years of productivity, then land is abandoned. l

Temperate Deciduous Forest: Changing with the Seasons (Fig. 5 -22) Description Moderate average temperatures,

Temperate Deciduous Forest: Changing with the Seasons (Fig. 5 -22) Description Moderate average temperatures, change significantly w/ season. l Long, warm summers; cold but not too severe winters l Abundant precipitation spread evenly throughout year (Fig. 5 -19 b) l Dominated by broadleaf deciduous trees, drop leaves in fall and become dormant over winter; l

Biota Broadleaf deciduous trees – oak, hickory, maple, poplar, and beech. l Fewer species

Biota Broadleaf deciduous trees – oak, hickory, maple, poplar, and beech. l Fewer species than tropical rain forests, but richer ground layer diversity l Once home for large predators such as bears, wolves, foxes, wildcats, and mountain lions. l Dominants mammals: white-tailed deer, squirrels, rabbits, opossums, raccoons and rodents. l Warblers, robins and other birds migrate to these forests during summer for the breeding l

Ecosystem Dynamics Slower decomposition produces a storehouse of nutrients in leaf litter. l Production

Ecosystem Dynamics Slower decomposition produces a storehouse of nutrients in leaf litter. l Production occurs in warmer months when photoperiod is longer. l

Conservation Large predators have been killed or displaced because of habitat destruction. l Many

Conservation Large predators have been killed or displaced because of habitat destruction. l Many migratory birds are declining because of habitat fragmentation and destruction l These forests once covered eastern half of the US and western Europe l • This biome has been disturbed by humans more than any other • Agriculture, industrialization and urbanization

Evergreen Coniferous Forests: Cold Winters, Wet Summers, and Conifers (Fig. 5 -23) Description Also

Evergreen Coniferous Forests: Cold Winters, Wet Summers, and Conifers (Fig. 5 -23) Description Also called boreal forests pf taigas l Just south of arctic tundra l Subarctic: Winters are long, dry and extremely cold with six to eight hours of daylight; summers are short, cool to warm and up to 19 hours of photoperiod (Fig. 5 -19 c). l Plant diversity low l

Biota l Spruce, fir, cedar, hemlock, and pine that keep some of their narrow-pointed

Biota l Spruce, fir, cedar, hemlock, and pine that keep some of their narrow-pointed (needles) leaves year-round • Needle-shaped, waxy-coated leaved withstand intense cold and drought of winter when snow blankets ground. Bears, wolves, moose, lynx, and burrowing rodents l Warblers and other insectivorous birds migrate there form tropics to feed on hordes of flies, mosquitoes, and caterpillars l

Ecosystem Dynamics Keeping needles allows advantage during brief summers, no time needed to grow

Ecosystem Dynamics Keeping needles allows advantage during brief summers, no time needed to grow new leaves. l Decomposition is slow because of low temp and high soil acidity lead to deep layer of leaf litter and needles. l During brief summer, soil becomes waterlog forming acidic bogs, or muskegs l Southern Pine Forests Regions of moderate climates l Economically important l

Conservation Tar sands being exploited in Canadian boreal forests l In southern pine forests,

Conservation Tar sands being exploited in Canadian boreal forests l In southern pine forests, forests grow rapidly, cleared for wood and converted to pine plantations reduces plant and animal diversity. l

Temperate Rain Forests: Biodiversity Near Some Coastal Areas (Fig. 5 -24) Also called coastal

Temperate Rain Forests: Biodiversity Near Some Coastal Areas (Fig. 5 -24) Also called coastal coniferous forests Scattered in coastal temperate areas w/ ample rainfall or moisture from dense ocean fogs. Ocean moderates temp winters mild, summers cool Dense stands of large conifers (Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, and redwoods) once dominated undisturbed areas of along west coast of NA from n. CA to Canada Little light reaches forest floor Ground level frequently covered w/ mosses and ferns

VI. Mountain Biomes Mountains: Islands in the Sky Cover about ¼ of the lands

VI. Mountain Biomes Mountains: Islands in the Sky Cover about ¼ of the lands surface Dramatic changes in altitude, climate, soil, and vegetation over a short distance (Fig. 5 -25) Steep slope Islands of biodiversity surrounded by lowerelevation landscapes transformed by human activities. Contain the majority of world’s forests Regulate earth’s climate l 75% of world’s freshwater stored in glaciers

Biota l Many species are endemic Ecosystem dynamics l Critical role in hydrologic cycle

Biota l Many species are endemic Ecosystem dynamics l Critical role in hydrologic cycle Conservation l l l Prone to erosion when veg. holding soil is removed by natural disturbances (landslides and avalanches) or human activities (timber cutting and agriculture). Serve as sanctuaries for animals driven from lowland areas. Fate of mountain ecosystems has not been a high priority despite coming under increasing pressure from human activities.

VII. Human Impacts on Terrestrial Biomes Increasing Human Disturbance 10 -55% of NPP is

VII. Human Impacts on Terrestrial Biomes Increasing Human Disturbance 10 -55% of NPP is used, wasted, or destroyed. Important lesson: NPP ultimately limits the number of consumers (including humans) that earth can support. 60% of world’s major terrestrial ecosystems are being degraded or used unsustainably. l Destruction and degradation is increasing A Survey of Our Harmful Ecological Impacts Humans have had a number of specific harmful effects on the world’s terrestrial biomes (Figs. 5 -26, 5 -27, 528, and 5 -29).

Seasonal Changes in Temp Back

Seasonal Changes in Temp Back

Prevailing Winds Back

Prevailing Winds Back

Convection Cell Back

Convection Cell Back

Convection Cells in Relation to Biomes Back

Convection Cells in Relation to Biomes Back

Greenhouse Effect Back

Greenhouse Effect Back

Rainshadow Back

Rainshadow Back

Fig 52 Back Fig 5 -

Fig 52 Back Fig 5 -

Biomes in NA, (Fig. 3 -9) th 39 Parallel Back

Biomes in NA, (Fig. 3 -9) th 39 Parallel Back

Fig. 3 -10 Back

Fig. 3 -10 Back

Fig. 5 -11 Back

Fig. 5 -11 Back

Tropical Desert (Fig. 5 -12 a) Back

Tropical Desert (Fig. 5 -12 a) Back

Temperate Desert (Fig. 5 -12 b) Back

Temperate Desert (Fig. 5 -12 b) Back

Polar Desert (Fig. 5 -12 c) Back

Polar Desert (Fig. 5 -12 c) Back

North American Desert Biome (Fig. 5 -13) Back

North American Desert Biome (Fig. 5 -13) Back

Tropical Savanna (Fig. 5 -14) Back

Tropical Savanna (Fig. 5 -14) Back

Temperate Grassland (Fig. 514 b) Back

Temperate Grassland (Fig. 514 b) Back

Temperate Tall-grass Prairie Ecosystem (Fig. 5 -15) Back

Temperate Tall-grass Prairie Ecosystem (Fig. 5 -15) Back

Crops Replace Grasslands (Fig. 5 -16) Back

Crops Replace Grasslands (Fig. 5 -16) Back

Polar Grassland, or Artic Tundra (Fig. 5 -14 c) Back

Polar Grassland, or Artic Tundra (Fig. 5 -14 c) Back

Arctic Tundra (Fig. 5 -17) Back

Arctic Tundra (Fig. 5 -17) Back

Chaparral Vegetation (Fig. 518) Back

Chaparral Vegetation (Fig. 518) Back

Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem (Fig. 5 -20) Back

Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem (Fig. 5 -20) Back

Tropical Rain Forest Climate Graph (Fig. 5 -19 a) Back

Tropical Rain Forest Climate Graph (Fig. 5 -19 a) Back

Stratification in a Tropical Rain Forest (Fig. 5 -21) Back

Stratification in a Tropical Rain Forest (Fig. 5 -21) Back

Temperate Deciduous Forest (Fig. 5 -22) Back

Temperate Deciduous Forest (Fig. 5 -22) Back

Temperate Deciduous Forest Climate Graph (Fig. 5 -19 b) Back

Temperate Deciduous Forest Climate Graph (Fig. 5 -19 b) Back

Evergreen Coniferous Forests (Fig. 5 -23) Back

Evergreen Coniferous Forests (Fig. 5 -23) Back

Evergreen Coniferous Forest Climate Graph (Fig. 5 -19 c) Back

Evergreen Coniferous Forest Climate Graph (Fig. 5 -19 c) Back

Temperate Rain Forest (Fig. 5 -24) Back

Temperate Rain Forest (Fig. 5 -24) Back

Mount Rainier National Park (Fig. 5 -25) Back

Mount Rainier National Park (Fig. 5 -25) Back