- Slides: 23
Lecture 15 Nutrient deficiencies
Nutrient deficiency any time one does not get a nutrient wwfq Causes of nutrient deficiency • Diet that is low or absent in a specific nutrient • Bioavailability of a nutrient –aside from diet (low ingestion of a nutrient) one can also have poor nutrient bioavailability due to pathology (including unsafe food)-related problems in digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism and/or excretion; poor bioavailability may also be due to one or more other components (including but not limited to other nutrients) in the food that reduce digestion and/or absorption
Nutrient deficiency any time one does not get a nutrient wwfq Causes of nutrient deficiency • Bioavailability of a nutrient –also excessive intake of one nutrient may cause the hyperexcretion of another nutrient
Carbohydrate deficiency In theory can get away without carbohydrates in diet that yield simple carbohydrates as long as have sufficient protein and lipids in diet to make simple carbohydrates - however a lack of fibre increases risk of colon cancer, constipation, hemorrhoids and poor bowel regularity Simple carbohydrate catabolism in body required for fatty acid breakdown; as well glucose is the best fuel for our nerves and brain
Carbohydrate deficiency No or very low carbohydrate diet can reduce availability range of some vitamins and/or minerals and /or various phytochemicals Lack of carbohydrates in diet can lead to ketosis; however there is debate in the literature as to whether the associated level of ketosis is problematic
Carbohydrate deficiency Ketosis can cause nausea, mental and physical headache, fatigue, weakness, bad breath No long term weight loss with low carb diet and may end up weighing more than when one initially started the low or no carbohydrate diet
Carbohydrate deficiency A word of caution about low or no carbohydrate diets- no long term (longer than one year) studies have been done in humans and so the long term impacts are not documented yet
Lipid deficiency Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are essential in our diets- we cannot make them Linoleic acid deficiency Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency Mead acid formed with essential fatty acid deficiency
Essential fatty acid deficiency symptoms • Dry, scaly rash • Hair loss • Hair depigmentation • Poor wound healing • Growth restriction in children • Increased susceptibility to infection
Very low fat or no fat diets • Inadequate cell structure • Inadequate fat soluble vitamin absorption and transport around the body and hence reduced ability to meet fat soluble vitamin functions • Essential fatty acid deficiency
Protein deficiency must have essential amino acids as we cannot make them conditionally essential amino acids- required in the diet if substrate(s) and/or metabolic machinery is inadequate all 20 amino acids (from a combination of in vivo synthesis and diet) are necessary to build proteins in the body marasmus and kwashikor-review maple syrup disease-urine and sweat smell like maple syrup-with this disease one cannot break down leucine, isoleucine and valine- results in poor appetite if not treated
Vitamin deficiencies • Review deficiency impacts from lecture on vitamins • Inadequate body levels of any given vitamin results in partial or complete loss of that vitamin’s functions in the body • Humans are always only one essential nutrient away from complete metabolic failure
Mineral deficiencies • Review deficiency impacts from lecture on minerals • Not all minor mineral deficiencies have necessarily been established
Mineral deficiencies • Inadequate body levels of any given mineral results in partial or complete loss of that mineral’s functions in the body • Humans are always only one essential nutrient away from complete metabolic failure
Mineral deficiencies • Can be due to excessive dietary fibre (currently debated), phytates, oxalic acid binding of minerals and preventing absorption; this seems to be particularly a problem with high intakes of these binding agents when mineral intakes are low
Mineral deficiencies • Excess of some minerals in diet will reduce absorption of other minerals • Excess dietary sodium results in calcium loss from bones resulting from increased urinary calcium
Water deficiency • Loss of water functions-see lecture on water • Negatively impacts the healthy roles of all water soluble nutrients • This is the nutrient where we have the shortest time window to correct a deficiency-why?
Nutrient Deficiencies are a food insecurity issue • Public health inspectors are key to reducing food borne disease and hence nutrient deficiencies • Thus public health inspectors are key to reducing food insecurity and hence increasing food security and all the health, economic, political, psychological and societal benefits flowing from food security
Nutrient Deficiencies are a food insecurity issue • How does food borne illness result in nutrient deficiencies for each of the six nutrient classes?
Nutrient Deficiencies are a food insecurity issue • What factors (other than absent or inefficient food inspections) are responsible for nutrient deficiencies?
Nutrient Deficiencies are a food insecurity issue • What are the health, economic, political, psychological and societal benefits flowing from food security?
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