- Slides: 14
Not only Never No sooner Only On no account Little 1 We’ve got problems in both Argentina and Brazil. Not only do we have problems in Argentina, but also in Brazil. 2 We’d just found a joint venture partner and then they went bankrupt! No sooner had we found a joint venture partner than they went bankrupt. 3 I had no idea that they were selling on the black market for $10 each. Little did I know that they were selling on the black market for $10 each.
Not only Never No sooner Only On no account Little 4 We can reduce the features, but there’s no way we’re going to compromise on quality. We can reduce the features, but on no account are we going to compromise on quality. 5 I’ve never experienced such a dramatic rise and fall in a company’s fortunes. Never have I experienced such a dramatic rise and fall in a company’s fortunes. 6 We can only sell our products in markets where English is spoken. Only in markets where English is spoken can we sell our products.
Mixed conditional • It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence. 1) PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION FORM • In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the “if” clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional (would + infinitive).
• EXAMPLES • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now. • If we had looked at the map we wouldn't be lost. FUNCTION • This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the present in the main clause.
• EXAMPLES • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn't study and now I don't have my license) • I would (could)be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn't take the job and I'm not a millionaire) • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn't buy this jacket. (but you didn't spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)
2) PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION FORM • In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the “if” clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional. • If we didn't trust him we would have sacked him months ago. • If I were not in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
FUNCTION • These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the “if” clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now.
• For example, in the sentence If she wasn't afraid of flying, she wouldn’t have travelled by boat. “If she wasn't afraid of flying” is contrary to present reality. She is afraid of flying. “she wouldn’t have travelled by boat" is contrary to past reality. She travelled by boat. • If I were a good cook, I would have invited them to lunch (but I am not a good cook, so I didn’t invite them to lunch).
• She wasn’t born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here. • But if she had been born in the US, she wouldn’t need a visa to work here. _______________________ • 2. I’m not currently rich and that is why I didn’t buy the newest laptop yesterday. • But if I were rich, I would have bought the newest laptop yesterday. _______________________ • 3. She didn’t win the lottery in the past and she isn’t rich now. • But if she had won the lottery, she would be rich. _______________________
• Sam doesn’t speak Russian and that is why he didn’t translate the letter. • But if Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter. ______________________ • 5. Our colleague is not creative and the company won’t send her to New York to work on the new campaign. • But if our colleague were creative, the company would send her to NY to work on the new campaign. ______________________
1. MERCOSUR was originated in 1988 as a free trade pact between Brazil _______ was 2. and Argentina. The modest reductions in tariffs and quotas accompanying ______ √ 3. this pact reportedly help bring about an 80 percent helped increase in trade _________ 4. between the two countries in the late 1980 s. √ Encouraged by this success, _______ 5. the pact be expanded in March 1990 to include Paraguay and Uruguay. _______ was 6. The initial aim was to established a full free trade area establish by the end of 1994 _______ 7. and a common market sometime thereafter. The four countries of __________ √
7. and a common market sometime thereafter. The four countries of __________ √ 8. MERCOSUR have a combined population of 200 millions. With a market _______ million 9. of this size, MERCOSUR could has a significant impact have on the economic _______ 10. growth rate of the four economies. On December 1995, MERCOSUR’s _______ In 11. members agreed to a five-years program under which they hoped to ________ year 12. perfect their free trade area and moved toward a move full customs union. ________
• • • No other attempt regional economic AT integration comes close to the EU in its boldness or its potential implications the FOR world economy, but regional economic IN integration is the rise the Americas. The ON most significant attempt is the North American Free Trade Agreement. Addition IN IN to NAFTA, several other trade blocs are the offing the Americas, the most significant IN OF which appear to be the Andean Group and MERCOSUR. One big issue now confronting NAFTA is that enlargement. OF
• • • A number of other Latin American countries have indicated their desire TO eventually join NAFTA. The governments both Canada and the OF United States are adopting a wait-andsee attitude regard most countries. WITH /IN TO