语态 主动形式 时态 一般式 (not) doing 被动形式 (not) being done (not) 完成式 (not) having done having been done
V-ing 的用法： 1. 作主语 ★ Swimming is good for health. Raising ★ ______ (raise) your hat to a a lady is good manners. 对一位女士脱帽致敬是礼貌的。 Being killed (kill) by sharks in ★ ______ the sea is a common thing.
2. 作表语 ☆ Teaching is learning. 教学相长． making ☆ My hobby is _____ (make) model planes. ☆ What worried the child most was not being allowed _____ (not, allow) to visit his mother in the hospital.
3). It’s no use (good) doing sth It’s a waste of time doing sth it 作形式主语, 只用V-ing, 不用不定式。 ※ It is + adj. + (for sb ) to do sth It is no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。 talking It is a waste of time ______ (talk) to him. to learn It is important for me ________ (learn) English.
Exercises 1. _____ the exam will disappoint your parents. A. You failing B. Your failing C. You fail D. You to fail. 2. 2. _____ the same mistake again made his parents very angry. A. His being made B. He has made 3. C. He had making D. His making 3. I don't think it's much good _____ to him. A. writing B. to write C. write D. written 4. Such books are not worthy _____ at all. A. of being read B. being read C. reading D. to read 5. It is no use ____ without through _____. A. to read; understood B. reading; understanding C. to read; understand D. read; to understand
3. 作宾语 V-ing 形式既可作动词的宾语, 也可作介词的宾语。 ★ We would appreciate hearing from you． 我们会珍惜你的来信。 ★ The bird escaped _______ (catch) being caught. ★ I feel like _____ (join) the army. joining ★ He was afraid of ______ being abandoned (abandon) by us.
注意： 在 avoid, admit, appreciate, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forgive, imagine, mind, miss, practise, risk, suggest, give up, put off, feel like, insist on , instead of, look forward to, object to, keep on等后只接V-ing形式作宾 语。
Exercises 1. The thief entered the room without _____. A. noticing B. being noticed C. having noticed D. having been noticed 2. Besides _____, she is kind and tender. A. beautiful B. being beautiful C. she beautiful D. is beautiful 3. When he heard the big noise, Tom stopped _____ and _____ to the window to see what was happening. A. to read; went B. reading; to go C. reading; going D. reading; went 4. I am busy _____ for the entrance examination, so I can’t help _____ housework at home. A. preparing; doing B. preparing; to do C. to prepare; doing D. to prepare; to do
注意 ①在want，need，require，deserve等动词之后 作宾语时，常用动名词的主动式表示被动意义。 Your car needs filling. 你这车要充气了。 This city deserves visiting. 这座城市值得光顾一下。 The problem requires studying carefully. 这个问题需要认真研究。 The trees want watering. 这些树需要浇水了。
②在（be）worth后面只能用动名词的主动态 来表示被动意义。 His suggestion is worth considering. The book is worth reading. ③在allow，advise，forbid，permit等动词后 直接跟动名词形式作宾语，如果后面有名词或代 词作宾语，其后用动词不定式作宾语补足语。如： We don’t allow smoking here. We don’t allow students to smoke.
Exercises 1. Sorry, we don’t allow _____ in the lecture room. A. to smoke B. smoke C. smoking D. to smoking 2. . They don’t permit _____ noise her. A. to make B. make C. making D. made 3. The sentence wants _____ once more. A. to explain B. explaining C. being explained D. to be explained it 4. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed _____. A. catching B. to be caught C. being caught D. to catch
5. Ali said that she wouldn’t mind _____ alone at home. A. left B. being left C. to be left D. leaving 6. She _____ the key. A. admitted taking B. admitted taking C. admitted having taken D. admitted to have taken 7. — Did you enjoy yourself last night? — It’s very nice of you. I appreciated _____ to the party. A. to be invited B. to have invited C. being invited D. having been invited 8. While we’re developing agriculture and industry, we must prevent the earth _____. A. from polluting B. polluted C. polluting D. being polluted
4. 作定语 ＊The girl standing there is my sister. surprising ＊This is a piece of _____ (surprise) news. being discussed ＊The problem______ (discuss) now is very important. working ＊ The farmers ______ (work) in the fields are tired.
5. 作状语 ◆ Hearing the good news , he jumped with joy. reading ◆ He sat at the table , _____ ( read ) China Daily. Being asked ◆_______ (ask) to answer the question, she couldn’t refuse. Working ( work ) hard , you will ◆_____ succeed.
6. 作宾语补足语: ● I saw people coming and going in the street. singing ● I heard her ______ (sing) a song in her room. ● You’ll being discussed find the topic _______ (discuss) everywhere now.
7. --- Ving 一般时和一般时的被动形式; 1) He hurried home , looking behind 2) from time to time. 2) The building being repaired is our dormitory.
--- Ving 的完成时和完成时的被动形式 1) Having lit a candle , she went out. 2) Having been asked to stay , I couldn’t leave. 3) Having heard this , our teacher expressed her satisfaction.
Practice 1. --- What made Bill so angry? --- ___. His girl friend promised to come at 8: 30, but she hasn’t come yet. A. Having kept waiting B. Being kept waiting B C. To be kept waiting D. Being kept waited
2. The building ___ in our school is for us teachers. Though there’s noise most of the day, we still feel happy about it. A. built B. having been built C. to be built D being built D.
3. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___. A. catching B. to be caught C being caught C. D. to catch
4. While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ___ into buying something they don’t really need. A. to persuaded B. persuading C. C being persuaded D. be persuaded
5. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do the exercises. A. Having taught B. Having been taught B C. taught D. Teaching
6. _____ the whole story, Jane decided not to see the film. A. A Having been told B. Having told C. Been told D. Telling
Fill in the blanks : Turning (turn) to the right , you will 1. _____ 2. find the place you want. Being asked (ask) to put on 3. 2. ______ performance , she refused. Having finished 4. 3. ________ (finish) his work , Henry went home. Learning 5. 4. ____ (learn) new words is useful.
being interrupted 5. He disliked _______ (interrupt) in his experiment. having waited not 6. I apologize for ________ (not, wait) for you. Not having received 7. _________ (not, receive) an answer I wrote to him again. Having, been given 8. __________ (give) such
being left (leave) 9. I didn’t mind ______ at home. cleaning 10. The house wants _____ (clean). being asked 11. He came in without _____ (ask). Having been shown 12. ________ (show) around the library , we were taken to see the lab.
巩固练习： 1. I can hardly imagine Peter ____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C sailing C. D. to have sailed
2. — The light in the office is still on. — Oh, I forgot_____ A. turning it off B. turn it off C. C to turn it off D. having turned it off
3. I would appreciate ____ back this afternoon. A. you to call B. you call C your calling C. D. you’re calling
4. How about the two of us ____ a walk down the garden? A. To take B. take C taking C. D. to be taking
5. — I must apologize for ____ ahead of time. — That’ all right. A. letting you not know B not letting you know B. C. letting you know not D. letting not you know
6. — You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. — Well, now I regret ____ that. A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D D. having done
7. He has always insisted on his ___ Dr Turner instead of Mr Turner. A. been called B. called C. having called D being called D.
8. Do you mind ___ alone at home? A. Jane leaving B. Jane having left C Jane’s being left C. D. Jane to be left
9. She looks forward every spring to ___ the flower-lined garden. A. visit B. paying a visit C. walk in D. D walking in
10. Once your business becomes international, ___ constantly will be part of your life. A. you fly B. your flight C. flight D flying D.
12. — What do you think made Mary so upset? — ___ her new bicycle. A. As she lost B. Lost C. C Losing D. Because of losing
13. — Let me tell you something about the journalists. — Don’t you remember ___the story yesterday? A. told B telling B. C. to tell D. to have told
14. One learns a language by making mistakes and ___them. A. correct B B. Correcting C. corrects D. to correct
15. Fishing is his favorite hobby, and ____. A. he’d like to collect coin as well B. he feels like collecting coins, too C. to collect coins is also his hobby D collecting coins also gives him D. great pleasure
巩固练习: 16. The secretary worked late into the night, ___ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing
17. ___ your homework, you mustn’t listen to music. A. When do B. When to do C. When doing C D. When you doing
18. The visiting minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ___that he had enjoyed his stay here. A. having added B. to add C. C adding D. added
19. ___ the idiom, he looked it up in the dictionary. A. Not learning B B. Never having learned C. Having not learned D. Having never learned
20. It rained heavily, __ severe flooding in the country. A causing A. B. to cause C. caused D. having caused 21. Any driver ___ a license ought to be punished. A. doesn’t have B. having not D not having C. has not D.
22. The missing boys were last seen ___ playing on the playground. A playing B. to be playing A. C. play D. to play 23. ______ to put on a performance, Miss Green couldn't refuse very well. A Being asked B. Asked A. C. Ask D. To be asked