# Nonlinear Analysis ElasticPlastic Material Analysis 2011 Autodesk Freely

• Slides: 24

Nonlinear Analysis: Elastic-Plastic Material Analysis © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Objectives § Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 2 The objectives of this module are to: § Provide an introduction to the elastic-plastic equations used in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics § Relate elastic-plastic material theory to the material parameters used in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics § Show to set up and perform an analysis using elastic-plastic materials in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Monotonic Stress-Strain Curves § Monotonic stress-strain curves are obtained from a tensile test that starts at zero load and progresses to fracture without any unload-reload cycles. § “Engineering” stress-strain curves are based on engineering stress and strain measures. § “True” stress-strain curves are based on true stress and logarithmic strain measures. © 2011 Autodesk Page 3 “True” stress-strain curves should be used when performing elastic-plastic finite element analyses using Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics. Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Cyclic Stress-Strain Curves § Cyclic stress-strain curves are obtained when the specimen is cycled repetitively between tension and compression stress or strain values. § Strain controlled experiments cycle between tension and compression strain extremes to yield a cyclic stress-strain curve as shown in the figure. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 4 Cyclic stress-strain curves are important to strain-life fatigue life calculations. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Bauschinger Effect § The Bauschinger effect refers to a decrease in the compressive yield stress due to work hardening in tension. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 5 s Tension stressstrain curve Unload § § It can also refer to a decrease in the tensile yield stress due to work hardening in compression. Work hardening can be used to increase the yield strength of a material, but it does so at the cost of a lower yield stress in the reversed direction of loading. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. e Actual compression stress-strain curve following tensile work hardening Monotonic stress strain curve in compression Bauschinger effect www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Yield Criteria Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 6 § The onset of yielding for ductile materials subjected to multi-axial stress states can be predicted using the von Mises effective stress. § This yield criterion can be written in several forms: § In terms of principal stress components § In terms of Cartesian stress components © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Graphical Representation § The elliptical curve shown in the figure is the intersection of the 3 -dimensional von Mises yield surface with the s 1, s 2 principal stress plane (s 3 = 0). § Note that the elliptical curve fits the experimental data for the steel and aluminum alloys (i. e. ductile materials). § Gray cast iron (brittle material) does not exhibit significant plastic deformation prior to fracture and the von Mises criteria does not match the experimental data. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 7 Two-dimensional representation of the von Mises yield criterion. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Incompressibility § § § Ductile metals subjected to moderate hydrostatic pressures do not exhibit permanent deformation when unloaded (i. e. they do not yield). The von Mises yield criterion is consistent with this experimental observation. A hydrostatic stress state will give a zero value for seff. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 8 Alternate form of Von Mises yield criterion using indicial notation. deviatoric stress components I 1 = 1 st stress invariant J 2= 2 nd invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Elements of Plasticity Theory Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 9 Key concepts of plasticity theory are: § The strain increment is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts. § A yield surface is used to determine if the material responds elastically or plastically. § Strain-hardening rules that determine the shape and position of the yield surface in the plastic region. § A plastic flow rule determines the relationship between the plastic strain increment and the stress state under multiaxial loading. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Isotropic & Kinematic Hardening § Isotropic hardening keeps the center of the yield surface stationary and accommodates work hardening by allowing the yield surface to get larger. § Kinematic hardening allows the center of the yield surface to move during work hardening and keeps the size of the yield surface constant. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 10 www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Application of Hardening Rules § § Isotropic or kinematic hardening can be used when the system being analyzed is subjected to monotonic (non-cyclic) loads. Kinematic hardening should be used with cyclic loading conditions to more accurately predict the Bauschinger effect. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 11 Monotonic Loading Force Time Force Cyclic Loading Time © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics Plasticity Models § Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics provides elastic-plastic material models for isotropic or kinematic hardening. § “True” stress-strain curves may be approximated using a bilinear model or entered directly. § Isotropic models should be used for unidirectional loading. § Kinematic models are recommended for cyclic loading. © 2011 Autodesk Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 12 List of elastic-plastic material models found in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics. Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Bilinear Models § § § “True” stress-strain curves can be approximated using a bilinear model. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 13 True Stress A bilinear model uses Young’s Modulus (E) and a strainhardening modulus (ET). ET E True Strain The Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics material library contains a strain-hardening modulus for many metals. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Curve Models Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 14 § Curve models allow an actual “true” stress-strain curve to be entered and used. § Tabular data is often contained within the Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics material models. This image shows the tabular data found in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics for AISI 1020 cold rolled steel. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Tabular data can be entered manually or imported from a. csv file. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Type § Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 15 An elastic-plastic material model may be used with four different Simulation analysis types MES with Nonlinear Material Models § Static Analysis with Nonlinear Material Models § Natural Frequency (Modal) with Nonlinear Material Models § MES Riks Analysis § © 2011 Autodesk Process for finding the nonlinear analysis types supporting elastic-plastic material models in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics. Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Example Problem § The response of a flat bar with a hole at its center will be used to demonstrate how to setup an elastic-plastic material analysis. § There is a stress concentration at the hole. § The objective is to determine how the stress distribution changes across the bar as it experiences elastic-plastic deformation. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 16 500 lb © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. A fine mesh is used where there will be high stress gradients. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Elastic Response § The material is AISI 1020 cold rolled steel and has a yield strength of 50. 8 ksi. § Based on the results of an elastic analysis, the onset of yielding will occur at a load of 2, 190 lb. § The figure shows the stress distribution at the onset of yielding. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 17 www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Type § The elastic-plastic response will be computed using the “Static Analysis with Nonlinear Materials” analysis type. § This must be set before nonlinear materials will be shown in the material library. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 18 www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Element Definition § The von Mises with Kinematic Hardening or Isotropic Hardening material model can be used for this problem because the load does not cycle. § Midside nodes are used to help capture the high stress/strain gradients. § The large displacement option is used to account for geometry changes as the plastic deformation takes place. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 19 www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Material Selection Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 20 AISI 1020 cold rolled steel is selected. § Since the bilinear stress-strain material model is being used, a Strain Hardening Modulus appears in the properties. § © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Parameters Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 21 The load is applied in an increasing fashion in 20 load increments (Capture rate). The duration is set to 1 second, but the problem does not include any inertia effects. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Maximum Applied Load § The onset of yielding starts at a load level of 2, 190 lb. § The load is set to 5, 000 lb. This was determined after several runs to be sufficient to let the material yield completely across the cross-section. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 22 www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Results § These figures show the difference between the stress distribution computed using both elastic and elastic-plastic analysis types. § The high elastic stresses are unrealistic because they do not lie on the stress-strain curve of the material. Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 23 Elastic Results © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Elastic-Plastic Results Education Community

Section 3 – Nonlinear Analysis Summary Module 2 – Elastic-Plastic Materials Page 24 § This module has provided an introduction to the elastic-plastic constitutive equations used in Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics software. § The difference between isotropic and kinematic hardening models was discussed and related to when each should be used. § The material parameters required by Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics for an elastic-plastic material were presented and related to theory. § The steps taken to set up an analysis that uses an elastic-plastic material model were presented in the context of an example problem. © 2011 Autodesk Freely licensed for use by educational institutions. Reuse and changes require a note indicating that content has been modified from the original, and must attribute source content to Autodesk. www. autodesk. com/edcommunity Education Community