- Slides: 63
Nixon, Ford and Carter Administrations
• Democratic candidate: Hubert H. Humphrey (liberal) • Republican candidate: Richard M. Nixon (more conservative) - Nixon won 302 electoral votes and the election
• • • Nixon’s re-election Ran against George Mc. Govern Nixon sabotaged his opponents This is now known as “dirty tricks” Nixon won by a landslide
• He was. . -a lawyer -Naval officer in WWII -anti-communist -republican congressman -vice president under Eisenhower -He lost the 1960 Presidential election to JFK • Ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1962
• First Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty • 5 year agreement that froze number of missiles made • It was between the United States and the Soviet Union
• Former FBI agent apart of the “Plumbers” - Plumbers is Nixon’s approved organization group to stop government leaks • Involved in Watergate Scandal
• List of prominent people who were seen as unsympathetic to the Nixon Administration • List includes - politicians, actors, comedians, etc.
• National Security Advisor and Secretary of State under Richard Nixon • He admired realpolitik – a policy to make decisions based on maintaining own strength rather than following moral principles
• Impeachment is - to charge a public official with wrong doing in office • Congress had begun the process to determine if they should impeach Nixon because of the Watergate. • Nixon resigned before being impeached
CREEP • Committee to re-elect the president through legal and illegal methods • Nixon’s funding organization • Actively involved in the Watergate scandal
Deep Throat • Under cover source Bernstein and Woodward used to confirm information on Watergate • Deep Throat’s identity was a mystery up until a few years ago when Mark Felt admitted to being deep throat
Détente • A French word meaning relaxation in tensions • China and Soviet Union both had this type of relationship with the U. S. beginning in the early 70 s
Embargo • A ban on Arab countries shipping oil to the United States • This was quite harmful to the economy in the U. S.
Oil Crisis 1) U. S. oil production declined 2) OPEC imposed an embargo on U. S. 3) Used natural gas, meaning less oil concocted 4) Oil prices rose 5) Population in America increased 6) U. S. was very dependent on other country’s oil
James Mc. Cord • A suspect of the Watergate break in • Former CIA employee was working on CREEP
H. R. Haldeman • Advertising executive for Nixon’s campaign • Became Chief of Staff for Nixon • One of Nixon’s close friends that he would turn to in troubling times
John Dean • John Dean was the legal counsel to President Nixon. • He was involved in Watergate and his testimony led many people to believe that Nixon was involved in Watergate.
Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward • Two reporters assigned to the Watergate story. • Confirmed their information from their under cover source “Deep Throat” • Linked the break in to the White House
Neil Armstrong • First man to walk on the moon. • Played golf on the moon. • Because he walked on the moon it showed that America was right there with the Soviet Union in the space race.
War Powers Act of 1973 • Passed during the Vietnam War, and Watergate. • Gave a basis of how U. S. troops could enter a war abroad. • It prescribes procedures on consulting, reporting and terminating deployment of U. S. armed forces. • Limited the President's ability to send US troops into combat
Warren Burger • Was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Nixon.
Huston Plan • A 43 page report and outline of proposed security operations put together by White House aid Tom Huston. First showed in 1973 during the Watergate scandal. • Legal and Illegal methods to get Nixon reelected and “protect” the U. S.
Watergate • Break in at the Democratic headquarters • Led to Nixon’s downfall • Members of the Executive branch organized political espionage. • People were charged with violation of public trust, bribery, contempt of Congress, and attempted obstruction of justice.
Alexander Butterfield • Deputy assistant to Nixon from 1969 -1973. He was a key figure in the Watergate scandal.
August 8, 1974 • Richard Nixon announced his resignation and that he will leave office the next day. • Vice President Gerald Ford would take over the presidency effective noon on August 9 th.
• Chief Domestic Advisor John Ehrlichman • Nixon’s personal lawyer
• A lawyer who managed Nixon’s presidential campaigns John Mitchell • Nixon asked him to be Attorney General after 1968 election
Inner Circle • Nixon’s informal cabinet of trusted officials • Henry Kissinger, John Ehrlichman, Richard Nixon, H. R. Haldeman
New Federalism • Nixon called for a new partnership between the federal and state governments • He did this by appointing more responsibilities to states for the well-being of citizens
Nixon’s Supreme Court • They made the Court more conservative • Nixon named new members of the Supreme Court who were less liberal and harder on the criminals
Nixon’s Visit to China • Nixon meets with leader, Mao Zedong and • It was significant Premier Zhou Enlai to because he was discuss problems and the first president ways to deal with them to visit the Communist China, and recognize it as “The People’s Republic of China”
Nixon’s Visit to USSR • Nixon meets with Premier Leonid I Brezhnev • They negotiated cooperation with space exploration, trade limits, and to limit nuclear arms
Oil Embargo • In 1973, Israel and the Arab nations of Egypt and Syria went to war • Arab members of OPEC imposed a ban on the shipping of oil to the U. S. because they sided with Israel
OPEC • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries • As a result of the oil embargo, enforced by OPEC, the prices of foreign oil quadrupled in the U. S.
Plumbers • Created to eliminate leaks from the White House • They hoped to find • A group of Nixoninformation on his approved private life to government punish him for members who broke leaking the into the office of Daniel Ellsberg. Pentagon Papers
Realpolitik: a German term for actual politics
Headed the senate select committee that investigated Nixon’s role in the Watergate cover -up
Ford goes on national television and pardons former President Nixon for his actions in Watergate enraging the American people.
Nixon wanted to win white vote and ensure that he won by stopping busing as a way to desegregate. He restored federal funding to districts that were still segregated.
Agnew was the only vice president to resign while under investigation during Watergate.
Served as chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1986 until his death in 2005.
Gerald Ford was born Leslie Lynch King Jr. He was in the US House of Representatives, the Vice President of the US, and the President of the US.
Ford wanted to replace the confidence in the American public.
In the 1976 election Ford would run against Carter would win by a small margin.
1980 Moscow Olympics • A part of a package of actions to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan • Carter issued and ultimatum that the U. S would boycott the Olympics if the Soviet troops had not withdrawn from the country by 12: 01 A. M 2/20/1980 • Carter was joined in the boycott by Japan, West Germany, China, the Philippines, and Canada
Helsinki Accords • President Ford signed the Helsinki accords • It is a series of agreements of European security made at a 1975 summit meeting in Finland. • U. S, Canada, S. U, 30 other European countries pledged to cooperate economically, respect existing national boundaries and promote existing human rights.
Camp David Accords • When the middle east was having problems, and Israel and Arab nations were fighting in a war, Carter sent his Secretary of State to Camp David which was a Presidential retreat to make peace • He was a peacemaker and got them to agree on a framework for peace that became known as the Camp David Accords
3 Mile Island • Occurred on March 28 th, 1979 in Harrisburg Pennsylvania • An accident where a partial meltdown occurred in a Nuclear generating station that gave off radioactive • Most significant accident in American History in the Nuclear power generating industry
Stagflation/ Inflation • Stagflation-Inflation and unemployment both rise, while the economy remained the same. • Inflation- a rise in the level of prices in goods and services. • Carter had trouble controlling inflation without hurting economic growth • Tried to stimulate economy by Government deficit spending to prevent a recession
Carters Background • Southerner, family from rural south • No national political experience • Different from recent predecessors in White House • Graduate of U. S naval academy • Engineer officer on nuclear submarines • Took over family’s peanut farm and warehouse when his father died • Entered politics in 1962
Fall of Saigon • In 1973 President Nixon signed a cease fire agreement ending U. S military involvement in Vietnam • Without American Military aid Saigon was unable to fight off North Vietnamese attacks
Carter’s Foreign Policy • Support for human rights • Relations with the Soviet Union • Solutions to problems in Middle East
Carter’s Judicial appointments • Appointed a record number of women and minorities to government positions
Draft amnesty programs • Carter granted amnesty (general pardon) to those who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War.
Iran Hostage Crisis • Revolution that broke out in Iran on January 1979. • Led by Muslim fundamentalists • For 444 days, revolutionaries imprisoned 52 American hostages in different locations. • Prisoners were blindfolded and moved from place to place. • Carter send a rescue mission to retrieve the hostages
National Energy Act • Carter Established it in 1978. • It affected oil and gas. Included these directives: 1. Tax sales of inefficient, “gas-guzzling, ” cars. 2. Convert new utilities to fuels other then oil or natural gas. 3. Deregulate prices for domestic oil and natural gas. 4. Provide tax credits or loans to homeowners for using solar energy. 5. Fund research for alternative energy sources
Leonid Brezhnev • Soviet Leader • Nixon and Brezhnev agreed to work together to explore space, eased longstanding trade limits, and complete negotiations on a weapons pact.
Love Canal • Located in Niagara Falls, New York • Chemical company dumped 21, 000 tons of toxic waste • A school was built over the area despite the knowledge of the toxic waste. • It spawned a huge controversy.
Malaise Days • Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence” and “Malaise” speech. • Carter talked about the confidence loss in the American people, which basically means that the American people did not trust the government.
Panama Canal • Built in 1914 • Used transport goods from Atlantic to Pacific • Carter agreed to turn control over to the Panamanians at the end of the 20 th century
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke • Court case involving Bakke and University of California. • Slots were opened for disadvantaged minority groups. There was no rule for disadvantaged Caucasians. • The court ruled in favor of Bakke June 23, 1978
Salt II • Negotiations between Carter and Brezhnev • It was an agreement to limit nuclear weapons between US and Soviet Union • Never ratified- fell apart when Soviets invade Afghanistan
Affirmative Action • It took race, ethnicity, and gender into consideration to promote equality • Benefits diversity in all levels of society. • People were against it because they felt like people were chosen because of their ethnic background