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NICHOLAS II, B. 1868, R. 1894 -1917 EXECUTED 17 JULY 1918
YOUNG TSAREVICH, 1868 -1894 First born son of Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna (Princess Dagmar of Denmark) Cousin to George V of Britain and Wilhelm II of Germany Close to his father, but envied his strength but closer to his mother Good family man Received a serious, broad education (but only to age 20): e. g. mastered German, French, and English Цесаревич Николай Александрович , “Горный пейзаж” Подпись на рисунке: «Ники. 1886. 22 июля» Alex III gave him a ship to travel the world. Britain, Austria-Hungary, Greece, Egypt, India, China and (finally) Japan
1894: NICHOLAS II COMES TO THE THRONE Nicholas caught unawares Insufficient education and time No independent political views Confessed to a close friend, "I am not prepared to be a tsar. I never wanted to become one. I know nothing of the business of ruling. "
KHODYNKA TRAGEDY, 18 MAY 1896 v 14 May 1896: coronation v Riot started by rumors of not enough food v Police attempted to control crowd v 1400 trampled to death v Bad omen for new tsar Nicholas’s diary (18 May 1896): “So far, everything went, thank God, like clockwork, but today a great sin occurred. A crowd spent the night at Khodynka field, in anticipation of receiving lunch and mugs. . . and then there was a terrible crush, and, terribly, about 1300 people were trampled! I learned this at 10: 30 am, and the news left a repulsive impression. At 12: 30 pm had breakfast and then Alix and I went to Khodynka to be present at this sad “people’s celebration". Actually, there was nothing there; we looked out from the pavilion at the huge crowd that surrounded the stage, where music was being played. . . We at Mama’s at 8 pm. Then we went to the ball at Montebello [French Ambassador]. It was very nicely arranged, but the heat was unbearable. ”
Sergei Witte’s Reforms 1892 - 1903 Successful Reforms Limitations of Reforms
THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR AND THE 1905 REVOLUTION
CAUSES OF RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR • • • 1868: Meiji Restoration in Japan Reasserted sphere of influence concept in Asia 1894 -95: Japan defeated China for Korea Russian Empire seeking warm-water port Trans-Siberian railway to Vladivostok 1898: Russia forced China to lease Port Arthur (Lüshun)
CAUSES OF RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR (CONT. ) • • 1899 -1901: Russians occupied Manchuria 1903: Japan tried to negotiate: Manchuria for Korea – • • • Russia never agreed 6 Feb. 1904: Japan recalled ambassador 8 Feb: attacked Port Arthur; then declared war. 16 Feb. 1904: Russia declared war
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, 1904 -1905 • • • Siege of Port Arthur, 8 Feb 1904 -2 Jan 1905 Japanese took key hilltop overlooking Port Arthur Used 11 -inch (280 mm) Krupp howitzers Destroyed Russian fleet Eventually Russians forced to surrender.
1905 REVOLUTION BEGINS… • Opposition: – Liberals: • • – Socialists • • 1903: Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists 1904: Union of Liberation Socialist-Revolutionaries Fall 1904: Banquet/zemstvo campaign: 40 years since court reform Attempted moderate reform not enough to please opposition Nicholas was fearful of too much change
What caused the revolution of 1905?
BLOODY SUNDAY, 9/22 JANUARY 1905 Father Gapon led workers’ unions Petition to the tsar at the Winter Palace � Improved working conditions � less overtime � higher wages � end Russo-Japanese war � universal suffrage Peaceful, patriotic demonstration About 300, 000 people 1000 died, some shot, some trampled.
BLOODY SUNDAY, 9/22 JANUARY 1905 From Nicholas II’s diary: 8 January 1905, Saturday: “Clear, icy day. There were many issues and reports. Breakfasted with Friderkis. Strolled a long time. Since yesterday all factories and mills went on strike. From the suburbs were called troops for strengthening the garrison. Until now workers have behaved peacefully. Their number has been determined as 120, 000. At the head of the workers’ union is some sort of priest – the socialist Gapon. Mirskii arrived in the evening to report about measures taken. ” 9 January 1905, Sunday: “Difficult day! In Petersburg serious disorders occurred as a result of workers’ desire to come to the Winter palace. Troops were forced to shoot in various parts of the city; many were killed and injured. God, how painful and difficult! Mama arrived to us from the city directly for mass. We all breakfasted together. Strolled with Misha. Mama stayed with us overnight. ”
END OF RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR • Feb. -Mar. 1905: Battle of Mukden 270, 000 forces each side – 90, 000 Russian casualties – 70, 000 Japanese casualties – • Late May 1905: Battle of Tsushima Russian Baltic fleet/Second Pacific Squadron (Oct 1904 May 1905) – Modern Japanese navy is far superior. – Russians lost 21 ships and 4300 sailors. –
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR ENDS • Treaty of Portsmouth 5 September 1905 Japan: south Sakhalin, Korea, Port Arthur – Russia: evacuate Manchuria (but no reparations) – • Casualties: Japanese dead: 80, 000 (in combat 47, 000; of disease 33, 000) – Russian dead: 70, 000 – Russia’s reputation as Great Power destroyed – • First Asian victory over European power, though at great sacrifice.
REVOLUTION INTENSIFIES… Demands of protesters: 'consultative' assembly religious tolerance freedom of speech reduce peasants' redemption payments 24 -25 May: 300 Zemstvo and municipal representatives passed resolution seeking popular representation at the national level. 6 June: Nicholas received a Zemstvo deputation; confirmed his promise to convene an assembly of people’s representatives
BATTLESHIP POTEMKIN MUTINY, JUNE 1905
What did Tsar Nicholas II do? It looked like Russia was getting out of control. Nicholas II had to make some decisions. He didn’t want to lose the autocratic power he had. What do you think he did in response to each of the following demands? © David King Collection The middle-classes demanded that they should be able to vote for an elected parliament. Peasants demanded that something should be done to relieve their poverty and starvation. Workers demanded to be allowed to set up trade unions and to have freedom of speech.
The October Manifesto © David King Collection The middle-classes demanded that they should be able to vote for an elected parliament. Peasants demanded land that something be done to relieve their poverty and starvation. Nicholas said that a new Nicholas abolished the parliament called the payments peasants Duma would be set up were having to make and its members would for the land they had be elected. been ‘given’ in 1861. Workers demanded to be allowed to set up trade unions and to have freedom of speech. Nicholas promised civil rights such as freedom of speech and association. This October Manifesto seemed to give people everything they were asking for. But would Nicholas keep his promises?
The Fundamental Laws, May 1906 I never really wanted democracy anyway, it was forced on me by the October Manifesto In May 1906, Nicholas II passed the Fundamental Laws. They said: the tsar’s ministers (the State Council) would be chosen by him and not appointed by the Duma the State Council could veto any laws sent to it by the Duma Supreme autocratic power belongs to the Tsar. © David King Collection the tsar could declare a state of emergency and rule by himself without the Duma no laws could be passed without the approval of the tsar.
WHY DID THE REVOLUTION FAIL? q Japan released prisoners to aid the Tsar q Most of the armed forces stayed loyal to the Tsar q October Manifesto divided the opposition q The workers strikes and the peasants uprisings were not co-ordinated q No clear leader for the opposition
QUESTIONS FROM ALPHA HISTORY WEBSITE - HTTP: //ALPHAHISTORY. COM/RUSSIANREVOLUTION/ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Russia in the late 19 th century was a society divided along class lines. Russia was a deeply anti-Semitic country at the start of the 20 th century. The demands of the Bloody Sunday protesters were very reasonable. The Social Democrats were attempting to finish off the reforms started by Alexander III. The October Manifesto addressed most of the demands of the Russian people in 1905. Russia was humiliated by Japan in the war of 1904/5.
QUESTIONS FROM ALPHA HISTORY WEBSITE - HTTP: //ALPHAHISTORY. COM/RUSSIANREVOLUTION/ 7. 8. 9. Bloody Sunday damaged the Tsar’s image beyond repair in Russia. International criticism of the Romanovs was damning after Bloody Sunday. The tsar’s views on the 1905 Revolution were very different to the Russian public’s views. Point: As per the statements above Evidence: Explanation: