- Slides: 10
New triangle of development: Africa-Asia-The Persian Gulf. South-South dynamics and their effects on the transformation of the international system Pécs, 28 May 2010 István Tarrósy, Ph. D. Department of Political Studies University of Pécs
Our ever so globalising world A ‘world society’ with subnational and supranational levels of interactions. (Burton, 1972) • Interwoven with all sorts of interconnected and interdependent relations of all sorts of actors. • Formerly inter-state international relations (state-centric) replaced by transnational interactions of different players. • Attention is shifting to transnational and transgovernmental societies boundary-crossing networks amongst individuals and NGOs.
New state-powers on the rise New types of powers and powerholders IR are not limited at all to governments – statelevel entities! • In today’s global system there is no real ‘superpower’. • We are witnesses of rising powers from the Far East to Latin America. • The importance of regional groupings, blocs, trade and other types of agreements, processes different dynamics • Shift within the North–South dialogue South–South cooperation and increasingly South– East
The rise of China and India on African soil • Not at all a new phenomenon • Historic ties between China, India and Africa • Coupled with constant migration from Asia to Africa • Trade – but not just trade! ”Africa’s exports to China increased at an annual rate of 48% between 2000 and 2005, two and half times as fast as the rate of the region’s exports to the US and four times as fast as the rate to the EU over the same period” (Broadman 2008: 95).
The Chinese Way • 1970 s: support connected to ideology • 1980 s: new approach mutual gains, equality • Today: hunger for resources • But in a very pragmatic way, with numerous offers that can benefit African actors • ”China never really left Africa” (Taylor 2006) • Long-term, strategic thinking • Bilateral agreements • State-encouraged and – supported ventures • FOCAC since 2000
The Indian Way • Since 1927: common struggle against imperialism • 1955: Bandung, NAM • 1974: NIEO • 1990 s: more pragmatic approach investments, trade, raw materials • • Long history of trade ”Shared colonial masters” Most important link: diaspora! Mutual benefits many similarities with China • But: no SOEs! • Bilateral ties and AU at the same time • Delhi Process India-Africa Forum Summit, 2008
The Japanese Way • 2001: first PM-visit to Africa • But: 1993 first international Africa conference in Tokyo • TICAD • 2000: G 8 Summit in Okinawa three African leaders to reflect upon the position of the developing world • Widespread feeling: ”Africa is a long way from our daily concern. ” (The Japan Times, 12. 01. 2001. ) • Despite recent cuts in ODA, Japan wants to assist Africa • General relation around aid • But: Japan also wants raw materials • The new type of international competition might change Japanese attitude towards Africa
Alternative ways of development • Complex transformations are fore/seen in the 21 st century • A multipolar global order with emerging powers of the Global South and their different models of successful development e. g. BRIC countries, South Africa IBSA, CIBS Dialogue • We can witness the retreat of the Washington Consensus + ”its rather poor record in Africa” (Cheru–Obi 2010: 1) • Beijing Consensus (Ramo 2004), ‘Southern Consensus’ nonprescriptive, no uniform solutions, pragmatic the ‘new physics of power and development’
Africa’s century finally? ? • NEW self-definition, selfdetermination, self-reliance Mbeki: Africa define yourself! • Strategic thinking – alternative ways and choice • Regional co-operation • Continent-wide integration (? ) African Union • Inter-regional ties • The new triangle of development: Africa – Persian-gulf – Asia + what this holds for the entire future global system
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