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New Scientific Ideas Chapter 9 -1 Chapter 9 section 1
Scientific Revolution 1600 s A Scientific Revolution spread throughout Europe Nicolaus Copernicus – a leader of this revolution Copernicus questioned traditional beliefs Believes the earth was round, rotated on its axis and revolved around the sun. His views were dangerous and he risked excommunication or imprisonment.
Scientific Revolution Copernicus worked in private without publishing his ideas. His friends helped to publish his work right before his death.
New Theories About the Universe Copernicus based his hypothesis on study and observations. He could not prove his work, because the required math was not available at the time. Furthering these ideas, Johannes Kepler provided math formulas that show planets did revolve around the sun. Disproved some of Copernicus’s ideas- 1. he proved that planets move in oval paths (ellipses) not in circles.
Challenging the Church Kepler- A Protestant, did not have to fear the Catholic Church. Galileo Galilei – Catholic Italian Mathematician, faced opposition of church leaders. Built his own telescope and studied the night skies. Saw moons circling a planet and believed Copernicus was right about the earth revolving around the sun. 1632 - Galileo publishes his ideas.
Challenging the Church Book is banned by Catholic Church, pope demands Galileo stand trial. Faced with possible death, Galileo recants many of his statements. Continues his work after trial, establishes universal laws of physics.
Newton’s UNiverse Isaac Newton- English Scientist, used Scientific Method (from Bacon)as he studied science and mathematics. Produces groundbreaking studies in mathematics and physics. 1687 - publishes Principia. Otherwise known as Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Book explains his Theory of Gravity. Develops a system of mathematics Calculus
Investigating the Human Body Galen- an ancient Greek, his theories of anatomy came from dissecting dogs and apes. Andreas Vesalius- French medical student. Human body dissection illegal in France 1500 s Since Galen’s findings were on animals, his anatomy beliefs could not be accepted. Vesalius made important anatomy discoveries by dissecting human bodies. Publishes On the Structure of the Human Body
Investigating the Human Body English physician William Harvey discovers that blood circulates around the body. 5 ½ quarts. English scientist Robert Hooke discovered the cell.
Experimenting with Chemistry Irish Scientist Robert Boyle proved that air was not a basic element as it was made up of several gases. English chemist Joseph Priestly the existence of oxygen. France’s Antoine Lavoisier discovered the materials consume oxygen when they burn, discovering the nature of combustion.