New Orleans Birthplace of Jazz Early Settlement New

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“New Orleans” Birthplace of Jazz

“New Orleans” Birthplace of Jazz

Early Settlement New Orleans was essentially French in character: › changes in politics did

Early Settlement New Orleans was essentially French in character: › changes in politics did not change its character: › Louisiana given to Charles III of Spain. › Napoleon forced the Spanish to return the territory in 1800. › US purchase in December 1803. 11/25/2020 Slide 2

Pierre Cavagnial de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1743 -1753) New Orleans became a multidimensional community.

Pierre Cavagnial de Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1743 -1753) New Orleans became a multidimensional community. › parties, banquets, parades, and balls. › Latin Catholics' tendency to celebrate heavily before Lent. › Mardi Gras. › New Orleans was a city of pleasure, "a kind of hedonistic binge with style; a style probably unmatched to this day" (Buerkle and Barker, p. 5) 11/25/2020 Slid e 3

Creoles of color Upper class men desired to carry on a tradition of their

Creoles of color Upper class men desired to carry on a tradition of their forebears - the keeping of mistresses. › the bals du Cordon Bleu – patrons (eligible young men) and ladies (often "octaroons" - ladies of one eighth black ancestry) could meet. › mistress typically provided with a house (a number of which were located on Rampart Street) and servants. African Americans enjoyed a much higher degree of freedom in New Orleans than in almost anywhere else in the US. 11/25/2020 Slid e 4

Creoles of color (cont’d. ) "By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Creoles

Creoles of color (cont’d. ) "By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Creoles occupied a position very near the top of the social order and though excluded from certain areas of white interaction, they had created their own social units, equal to and often vastly superior to all others in the community" (ibid. , p. 8 -9). A few owned cotton and sugar plantations with numerous slaves. 11/25/2020 Slid e 5

Creoles of color (cont’d. ) Spain freed many of the slaves during its rule.

Creoles of color (cont’d. ) Spain freed many of the slaves during its rule. slave revolt in Haiti (1791 -1804), free blacks took refuge in Cuba; most were forced out in 1809, and many of them came to New Orleans. The Vieux Carré (often called the "French Quarter") – home to French families, their servants, and Creoles of Color. › many Creoles were successful business people. › figured prominently in the Carré's cultural activities. › French-speaking "downtown" families were significantly higher on the social ladder than those on the other side of Canal Street. 11/25/2020 Slid e 6

Cultural distinctions: Although true that most of the "uptown" people of color had darker

Cultural distinctions: Although true that most of the "uptown" people of color had darker skin than their "downtown" counterparts, neither skin color nor physical features defined the two communities. › primary language French vs. English. › Catholic vs. Protestant background. › access to formal (including music) education. Creole musicians: › musical performance was a "hobby. “ › participated in opera and symphonic performances as well as the numerous brass bands. 11/25/2020 Slid e 7

Congo Square After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, slaves were allowed some limited freedom:

Congo Square After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, slaves were allowed some limited freedom: › many not required to work Sundays and certain religious holidays. › allowed to assemble in a 4 -block area near Orleans and Rampart Streets behind the French Quarter called "Congo Plains" or "Congo Square. “ › free expression of African culture and customs. 11/25/2020 Slid e 8

War Between the States (April 12, 1861) followed by Reconstruction and post. Reconstruction eras.

War Between the States (April 12, 1861) followed by Reconstruction and post. Reconstruction eras. › events and changing economic and political circumstances gradually changed the social strata of New Orleans. › Public segregation by race reimposed 1877. "Act 111 of the Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislature" - the first of the so-called "Jim Crow" laws was enacted in 1890; separate cars were required for black and white patrons traveling first class. separate waiting rooms in railroad depot. outlawing of interracial marriages. 11/25/2020 Slid e 9

Economic hardship Both black and white workers experienced economic hardship in the 1880 s

Economic hardship Both black and white workers experienced economic hardship in the 1880 s and 1890 s. › A huge influx of immigrants competed for available work. › industrial machinery replaced large numbers of workers. › unions organizing many trade/craftsman positions. › Many Creole artisans found themselves completely out of work or operating on a much smaller scale. 11/25/2020 Slid e 10

Music in New Orleans Music – once a hobby became the primary source of

Music in New Orleans Music – once a hobby became the primary source of income for many. › skilled "downtown" musicians found work playing for social events and, occasionally, the professional orchestras. › new blues-based musical style challenged the livelihood of the Creole musicians. 11/25/2020 Slid e 11

Storyville Alderman Sidney Story, in attempting to confine the trade of prostitution to a

Storyville Alderman Sidney Story, in attempting to confine the trade of prostitution to a limited area, established a 38 -block area that became known as Storyville. › primarily devoted prostitution and “related businesses. ” 11/25/2020 Slid e 12

Music in Storyville: wide variety of music ranging from string trios to ragtime pianists

Music in Storyville: wide variety of music ranging from string trios to ragtime pianists to the blues. a loss of social status within the community. work was steadier and money was a little better. musicians listened to each other and adapted their own styles. music in Storyville was clearly functional. Early jazz was considered “tainted” by critics both by venues in which it was performed and by the “unpolished, ” improvisatory nature of the music. 11/25/2020 Slid e 13

Closing of Storyville In August 1917, the Secretary of War and the Secretary of

Closing of Storyville In August 1917, the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy issued orders forbidding open prostitution within five miles of Army or Navy posts. After much protest, operation of a brothel became illegal anywhere. prostitution driven underground, large numbers of musicians lost their jobs. contributed to the ongoing emigration of musicians from New Orleans. 11/25/2020 Slid e 14