New Jersey Probation Moving to Enhanced Outcome-Based Services Utilizing Evidence-Based Practices
Evidenced-Based Practices • Research is empirical, conducted in a controlled clinical manner, statistically shown to have efficacy and effectiveness, and is published after peer review. • Implementation is standardized and usually follows a manual. • Program Fidelity is important in assuring consistent outcomes.
Enhanced Outcome-Based Probation • Nationally, it was noted that a growing number of states have been integrating more modern evidence-based techniques into their supervision models. • At the same time a risk based supervision pilot occurred in three counties: Burlington, Mercer, and Passaic. • Research Partner Rutgers University School of Criminal Justice recommended: • “…The RBS program appears to be a meaningful way to decrease recidivism. ” • “Probation should adopt a more meaningful risk assessment instrument that communicates the criminogenic needs of probationers. ”
Evidenced-Based Strategies that Assist in the Management of Offenders • Risk Principle • target higher risk offenders (WHO). • Use empirically validated actuarial risk assessment tools • Need Principle • target criminogenic risk/need factors (WHAT). • Responsivity Principle • delivering programs that are consistent with the ability, learning style and readiness of the offender (HOW).
WHO uses a Risk-Need-Responsivity Assessment? • • • • Alabama Alachua County, FL Alameda County, CA (pre-trial tool only) Arkansas Armstrong County, PA Berks County, PA Calaveras County, CA Connecticut Colorado Community Resources for Justice (Boston, MA) Cumberland County, PA Dade County, FL Dauphin County, PA Friends Outside Reentry Program (Stockton, CA) Hawaii Department of Public Safety Health Right 360 (San Francisco, CA) • • • • Kansas City, KS Lee County, FL New Hampshire Nevada Dept. of Corrections Oklahoma Orange County, FL Osceola County, FL Philadelphia County, PA Pike County, PA Seminole County, FL Texas Vermont Washington County, PA West. Care Foundation (agencies in Nevada, Oregon, California) • York County, PA • Youthbuild (multiple locations)
Who uses a Risk-Need-Responsivity Assessment? Adult and Juvenile: • Ohio • Indiana • Lassen County, CA • Massachusetts • Montana (adult all trained; new contract to train juvenile staff Fall 2015) • Riverside County, CA • Ventura County, CA • Yolo, CA Juvenile: • Arizona • Contra Costa County, CA • FLY Program (Bay Area, CA) • Maine • Michigan • Monterey County, CA • New Mexico (potential new contract) • Urban League • Yolo County, CA
All humans are vulnerable to certain biases that will interfere with their ability to accurately evaluate and interpret the behavior of others! – Implicit Bias Don’t believe everything you think.
The Big Four Risk Factors Factor History of Antisocial Behavior Antisocial personality What to look for: What strategy to use: Early & continued involvement in a number of antisocial acts Build pro-social alternative behaviors to apply in risky situations Adventurous, pleasure seeking, Build problem-solving skills & teach anger lack self control, restless, mgt &coping skills aggressive Focus on reducing criminal thinking. Teach client to recognize and manage risky thoughts and feelings. Adopt a reform and/or pro-social identity. Criminal thinking Attitudes, values, beliefs support crime, anger, resentment & defiance Antisocial associates Close association with criminals Reduce association w/ criminals, & relative isolation from proenhance association w/ pro-social people Adopted from Andrews, D. A. et al, (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52 (1).
The Next Four Biggest Factors Factor Family and/or marital problems. What to look for: Two key elements are capacity for nurturance and caring. Poor communication skills. What strategy to use: Reduce conflict, build positive relationships, communication skills. Anger Management. School and/or work problems. Low levels of performance & satisfaction Enhance performance, rewards, & satisfaction Low levels of involvement& Leisure and/or satisfaction in pro- social leisure Enhance involvement& satisfaction in activities recreation pro-social leisure activities Too much free time Substance Abuse or dependence of alcohol and drugs Reduce SA, reduce the personal & interpersonal supports for SA behavior, enhance alternatives to SA Adopted from Andrews, D. A. et al, (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52 (1).
Punishment vs. Rehabilitation Severity of a crime is not equivalent to risk of recidivism
Conditions of Probation “… research and the evolution of modern thinking on probation, including the view that sometimes less is more. All of the best practices on probation practice are based on empirical studies that tie, for example, excessively long probation terms and excessive numbers of conditions to increased recidivism. Conditions of probation should be narrowly tailored to the criminogenic (or crime-causing) needs of the individual to protect the victim and the public; imposing too many conditions may cause crime. ” Judge Jack Lu is Chair of the Massachusetts Sentencing Commission, an Adjunct Professor of Law at Boston University School of Law, and a Superior Court Judge.
Evaluation Tool of Criminogenic Needs RISK = History of Antisocial Behavior + Antisocial Personality + Criminal Thinking + Antisocial Associates + Family Conflict + School/Work Problems + Antisocial Leisure Activity + Substance Abuse Determines Supervision Level Assists us in Developing a Case Plan
Evaluation Tool of Criminogenic Needs RISK = History of Antisocial Behavior + Antisocial Personality + Criminal Thinking + Antisocial Associates + Family Conflict + School/Work Problems + Antisocial Leisure Activity + Substance Abuse CASE PLAN: High Level of Supervision Substance Abuse Treatment and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
What should be prioritize on the Case Plan? Tier I “Big 4” • Criminal Thinking • Criminal Attitudes: Values & Behavior Patterns • Peer Associations • Personality (aggressive, Impulsive, risk seeking, traits that contribute to crime) Tier II • Education & Employment • Family & Social Support • Substance Abuse • Neighborhood Problems & Leisure Time
The Four Principles of Cognitive Intervention 1. Thinking affects behavior 2. Antisocial, distorted, unproductive irrational thinking can lead to antisocial and unproductive behavior 3. Thinking can be influenced 4. We can change how we feel and behave by changing how we think
Evidence-Based Supervision Strategies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Quality Interpersonal Relationships Effective Reinforcement Effective Disapproval Effective Use of Authority Cognitive Restructuring Anti-criminal Modeling Structured Learning/Skill Building Problem Solving Techniques
PROBATION SERVICES N O D I S O I V MEST R E P U IC VIO S T L U ME L AD ENCE NT AL DRUG COURT HE JUVENILE SUPERVISION ALT H P S I J ISP INTA KE ADULT and JUVENILE SEX OFFENDER
So how will the process be different… • Intake – Logistical issues, initial screening, and philosophy of movement to the permanent officer as soon as possible
So how will the process be different… • Initial Supervision - ~3 weeks focused on relationship building between the PO and the probationer, ending with a full assessment
So how will the process be different… • Case Planning – Will be the result of the RNR instrument, the client’s personal goals, the barriers to working with the client, and the client’s circle of influence
So how will the process be different… • Structured Responses – Suggested responses to both positive and negative behaviors will be provided that are individualized for the probationer, and will include CCP techniques
So how will the process be different… • VOPs and Early Terms – VOPs will be informed by the RNR and the response of the probationer to CCP techniques
So how will the process be different… • Quality Assurance – Monitoring to ensure we are using the new techniques and tools properly
Enhanced Outcome-Based Focus • Assess Criminogenic Risk and Need Factors • Tailor Conditions of Supervision • Focus Resources on High Risk Offenders • Define Success as Recidivism Reduction and Measure Performance