- Slides: 23
New Civilizations in the E and W. Hemispheres • Early China(2000 -221 B. C. E. ) – Shang and Zhou • Nubia (3100 BCE-350 CE) • Olmec and Chavin (1200 -250 BCE) AP World: Chapter 2
Shang Period (1750 -1027 BCE) • The Shang originated along the Yellow River Valley in Eastern China. • Isolated from the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere by natural barriers including the Himalaya mountain range. • Note: The Xia dynasty was a dynasty that may have preceded the Shang, but they are believed to have been a myth.
CHINA Shang Himalayas
Sui, Tang and Song China
Shang Society • Shang society was dominated by a warrior aristocracy. • The king ruled the core area directly while aristocrats served as generals. • Frequent military campaigns provided the warrior aristocracy with a theatre for brave achievements and POWs that would become slaves.
Shang Ideology • Shang kingship glorified the king as the indispensible link between the people and the gods. • Shang rulers used divination to determine the will of the gods including ritual sacrifices. • Possession of bronze objects was a sign of authority and nobility.
Transregional Trade • Trade expanded throughout this period from local to regional, with civilizations exchanging goods, cultural ideas, and technology. • What are some examples of how civilizations may have exchanged goods & ideas with other distant civilizations? – Among other reasons, the two most popular ways were: 1. Rivers – Traveling up and down rivers. 2. Nomads – Nomads would travel from city to city.
Chinese Dynasties • • • Shang Dynasty 1750 BCE - 1027 BCE Zhou Dynasty 1027 BCE -221 BCE Qin Dynasty 221 BCE - 206 BCE Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 220 AD Later Han Dynasty 25 AD - 220 AD Period of Disunion 220 AD - 589 Sui Dynasty 589 AD - 618 AD Tang Dynasty 618 AD - 907 AD Sung Dynasty 969 AD - 1279 AD Yuan Dynasty 1279 AD - 1368 AD Ming Dynasty 1368 AD - 1644 AD
Start here Emperor is defeated !! Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. A new dynasty comes to power. The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. The Dynastic Cycle Droughts, floods, famines occur. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc. ) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption.
Zhou Period (1027 -221 BCE) • After 6 dominating centuries, the Shang was finally defeated by the Zhou(Pronounced: Joe). • The Zhou preserved the essentials of Shang culture while adding new elements of philosophy and ideology.
What is philosophy? • Literally: a love for wisdom • Typically asks Questions like: – What is the purpose of life? – What is a good person like? – What is success? – What is truth? What is knowledge? – How should I act in a situation? • Often philosophy and religion overlap
Why did these philosophies develop? • War and social changes were disrupting everyday life • Government lacked control • These philosophies helped guide people and the government to a better life • Needed a way to “sell” the new Zhou regime to the people in a positive light.
Mandate of Heaven – The positive image of Zhou rule was carefully constructed. – The chief deity was now referred to as “Heaven”, the monarch was called the “Son of Heaven”, and his rule was called the “Mandate of Heaven”. – Principles: • Ruler was chosen and given the right to rule by Heaven. • only one Heaven so only one ruler in China. – Advantages: • It gives the ruler supreme power politically and religiously – The Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful.
Legalism • The power and wealth of the state and its demands were justified by a new political philosophy known as Legalism. • Legalist thinkers maintained that human nature is naturally wicked and people only behaved if there were strict laws and punishments.
Confucianism • Confucius had a much more optimistic view on the basic goodness of human nature than that of Legalist thinkers. • He drew parallels between the family and the state. Just as a family had a hierarchy, so should the state. • 5 Relationships • Ruler to Subject • Parent to Child • Husband to Wife • Older Brother to Younger Brother • Friend to Friend
Confucianism • Confucianism descriptions – – – – Morally good Reasonable Moderate – not extreme Peace. Avoid violence Polite, kind, helpful, and respectful Best rulers are wise and lead by example “Do not do to others what you do not want done to you. ” • Confucianism became the dominant political philosophy and core of the educational system in China.
Daoism • Daoism thinkers looked to stop the warfare of the age by urging humanity to follow the Dao, or “path” • Daoists accept the world as they find it, avoiding useless struggles and sticking to the “path” of nature and avoid violence if at all possible. • Rather than fight the current of the stream, a wise man allows the onrushing waters to pass around him.
Daoism/Taoism • The teachings of the Way (Dao/Tao) • Laozi (604 -517 BCE ) – AKA Lao Zi, Lao Tsu – Real person? – Legend? – Composite of both? • Urged people to leave behind empty formalities, rituals, hierarchies, etc of society
Yin and Yang • Negative and positive principles of the universe. • One cannot exist without the other • Not Opposites, but Complements • Male (Yang) was equated with the sun – active, bright, shining • Female (Yin) was equated with the moon – shaded, reflective, passive
Meso. American Civilization Olmec (1200 BCE – 400 CE)
Sui, Tang and Song China
Chavin Economy Agriculturally based – terraced farming, different crops based on location and altitude Lots of labor/workers necessary for transport of goods Trade from different regions provided lots of different food to eat
Sui, Tang and Song China