NetworkAttached Storage 4 Networkattached storage NAS is storage

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Network-Attached Storage 4 Network-attached storage (NAS) is storage made available over a network rather

Network-Attached Storage 4 Network-attached storage (NAS) is storage made available over a network rather than over a local connection (such as a bus) 4 NFS and CIFS are common protocols 4 Implemented via remote procedure calls (RPCs) between host and storage 4 New i. SCSI protocol uses IP network to carry the SCSI protocol 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 1

Storage Area Network 4 Common in large storage environments (and becoming more common) 4

Storage Area Network 4 Common in large storage environments (and becoming more common) 4 Multiple hosts attached to multiple storage arrays flexible 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 2

Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) 4 A hierarchical storage system extends the storage hierarchy beyond

Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) 4 A hierarchical storage system extends the storage hierarchy beyond primary memory and secondary storage to incorporate tertiary storage — usually implemented as a jukebox of tapes or removable disks. 4 Usually incorporate tertiary storage by extending the file system. < Small and frequently used files remain on disk. < Large, old, inactive files are archived to the jukebox. 4 HSM is usually found in supercomputing centers and other large installations that have enormous volumes of data. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 3

Swap-Space Management 4 Swap-space — Virtual memory uses disk space as an extension of

Swap-Space Management 4 Swap-space — Virtual memory uses disk space as an extension of main memory. 4 Swap-space can be carved out of the normal file system, or, more commonly, it can be in a separate disk partition. 4 Swap-space management < 4. 3 BSD allocates swap space when process starts; holds text segment (the program) and data segment. < Kernel uses swap maps to track swap-space use. < Solaris 2 allocates swap space only when a page is forced out of physical memory, not when the virtual memory page is first created. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 4

Disk Scheduling 4 The operating system is responsible for using hardware efficiently — for

Disk Scheduling 4 The operating system is responsible for using hardware efficiently — for the disk drives, this means having a fast access time and disk bandwidth. 4 Access time has two major components < Seek time is the time for the disk are to move the heads to the cylinder containing the desired sector. < Rotational latency is the additional time waiting for the disk to rotate the desired sector to the disk head. 4 Minimize seek time 4 Seek time seek distance 4 Disk bandwidth is the total number of bytes transferred, divided by the total time between the first request for service and the completion of the last transfer. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 5

Disk Scheduling (Cont. ) 4 Several algorithms exist to schedule the servicing of disk

Disk Scheduling (Cont. ) 4 Several algorithms exist to schedule the servicing of disk I/O requests. 4 We illustrate them with a request queue (0 -199). 98, 183, 37, 122, 14, 124, 65, 67 Head pointer 53 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 6

FCFS Illustration shows total head movement of 640 cylinders. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems

FCFS Illustration shows total head movement of 640 cylinders. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 7

SSTF 4 Selects the request with the minimum seek time from the current head

SSTF 4 Selects the request with the minimum seek time from the current head position. 4 SSTF scheduling is a form of SJF scheduling; may cause starvation of some requests. 4 Illustration shows total head movement of 236 cylinders. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 8

SSTF (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 9

SSTF (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 9

SCAN 4 The disk arm starts at one end of the disk, and moves

SCAN 4 The disk arm starts at one end of the disk, and moves toward the other end, servicing requests until it gets to the other end of the disk, where the head movement is reversed and servicing continues. 4 Sometimes called the elevator algorithm. 4 Illustration shows total head movement of 208 cylinders. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 10

SCAN (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 11

SCAN (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 11

C-SCAN 4 Provides a more uniform wait time than SCAN. 4 The head moves

C-SCAN 4 Provides a more uniform wait time than SCAN. 4 The head moves from one end of the disk to the other. servicing requests as it goes. When it reaches the other end, however, it immediately returns to the beginning of the disk, without servicing any requests on the return trip. 4 Treats the cylinders as a circular list that wraps around from the last cylinder to the first one. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 12

C-SCAN (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 13

C-SCAN (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 13

C-LOOK 4 Version of C-SCAN 4 Arm only goes as far as the last

C-LOOK 4 Version of C-SCAN 4 Arm only goes as far as the last request in each direction, then reverses direction immediately, without first going all the way to the end of the disk. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 14

C-LOOK (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 15

C-LOOK (Cont. ) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 15

Selecting a Disk-Scheduling Algorithm 4 SSTF is common and has a natural appeal 4

Selecting a Disk-Scheduling Algorithm 4 SSTF is common and has a natural appeal 4 SCAN and C-SCAN perform better for systems that place a heavy load on the disk. 4 Performance depends on the number and types of requests. 4 Requests for disk service can be influenced by the file-allocation method. 4 The disk-scheduling algorithm should be written as a separate module of the operating system, allowing it to be replaced with a different algorithm if necessary. 4 Either SSTF or LOOK is a reasonable choice for the default algorithm. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 16

RAID Structure 4 RAID – multiple disk drives provides reliability via redundancy. 4 RAID

RAID Structure 4 RAID – multiple disk drives provides reliability via redundancy. 4 RAID is arranged into six different levels. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 17

RAID (cont) 4 Several improvements in disk-use techniques involve the use of multiple disks

RAID (cont) 4 Several improvements in disk-use techniques involve the use of multiple disks working cooperatively. 4 Disk striping uses a group of disks as one storage unit. 4 RAID schemes improve performance and improve the reliability of the storage system by storing redundant data. < Mirroring or shadowing keeps duplicate of each disk. < Block interleaved parity uses much less redundancy. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 18

RAID Levels 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 19

RAID Levels 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 19

RAID (0 + 1) and (1 + 0) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles

RAID (0 + 1) and (1 + 0) 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 20

Stable-Storage Implementation 4 Write-ahead log scheme requires stable storage. 4 To implement stable storage:

Stable-Storage Implementation 4 Write-ahead log scheme requires stable storage. 4 To implement stable storage: < Replicate information on more than one nonvolatile storage media with independent failure modes. < Update information in a controlled manner to ensure that we can recover the stable data after any failure during data transfer or recovery. 9/26/2020 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles page 21